These statistics are derived from the Understanding Society survey waves 2-7, 2010 to 2016.
Understanding Society is a UK household longitudinal study in which respondents in households are visited each year to collect information on changes to their household and individual circumstances. Interviews are typically carried out in respondents’ homes by trained interviewers. Household members aged 16 years or older are interviewed and the same individuals are re-interviewed in successive years to see how things have changed. Individuals become eligible for a full interview once they reach the age of 16 years.
Household incomes are adjusted (or ‘equivalised’) during the statistical calculation to take into account the number of adults and children who live there. Equivalisation adjusts incomes for household size and composition, taking an adult couple with no children as the reference point. After equivalisation has been applied, households with the same equivalised income can be said to have a comparable standard of living.
Weights have been applied which take the combined population subsamples, adjusting for unequal selection probabilities, differential non-response, and potential sampling error.
Estimates are subject to sampling error and remaining non-sampling bias.
Surveys gather information from a sample rather than from the whole population. The selection of the sample for the Understanding Society study is designed to be representative of the whole population, but there are limitations to this accuracy, due to, for example, time and cost constraints. Thus, results from a sample survey are always estimates, not precise figures. This means that they are subject to a margin of error which can affect how changes in the numbers should be interpreted, especially in the short-term. Year-on-year movements should be treated with caution.
The data on income before housing costs is of better quality than that on income after housing costs, as fewer cases were available for analysis after housing costs. The University of Essex, which publishes the Understanding Society survey, plans to improve housing costs information for the next publication.
Suppression rules and disclosure control
Any values based on fewer than 100 responses have been suppressed to preserve confidentiality.
Percentages are given to the nearest whole number.