Average hourly pay
1. Main facts and figures
- in 2018, employees from the Indian ethnic group had the highest average hourly pay out of all ethnic groups (£13.46)
- employees from the combined Pakistani and Bangladeshi ethnic group had the lowest (£9.62)
- the average hourly pay for White employees was £11.87
- between 2013 and 2018, employees from the Indian ethnic group had the highest hourly pay every year
- employees from the combined Pakistani and Bangladeshi ethnic group had the lowest hourly pay every year
- the combined average hourly pay for all ethnic groups went up from £10.54 to £11.82 (a 12.1% increase)
The ethnic categories used in this data
In most cases, the figures shown on this page are for aggregated ethnic groups.
But separate figures are shown for different Asian ethnic groups:
- Pakistani and Bangladeshi (combined)
- Asian Other
This reflects the different employment related outcomes between different Asian ethnic groups.
It is also consistent with other official labour market statistics published by Nomis.
Separate figures are also shown for different White ethnic groups:
- White British
- White Other
2. By ethnicity over time
Summary of Average hourly pay By ethnicity over time Summary
The Annual Population Survey (APS) is a continuous household survey. Most people are interviewed in person first and later by telephone.
The APS contains 12 months of survey data. It combines data from 4 successive quarters of the Labour Force Survey (LFS) with rolling-year data from the local labour force surveys for England, Wales and Scotland.
The sample size for the full dataset is approximately 320,000 respondents. However, it should be noted that earnings questions are asked only of employees responding to the APS, meaning that sample sizes for earnings analysis tend to be smaller compared with analyses of other labour market characteristics.
This analysis uses the median to report average hourly pay, which is the middle point of a range of numbers arranged in order. A mean average would be more affected by ‘extreme’ values which may not reflect some of the lower paid people in each ethnic group.
Using the median mitigates against extreme values. But as with the mean, it is less reliable for ethnic groups with fewer respondents.
APS earnings data is thought to be of a lower quality than other sources, because people report their own pay however, other sources don’t collect data on people's ethnicity.
Suppression rules and disclosure control
Sample sizes of less than 30 have been excluded, both to protect confidentiality and because the numbers involved are too small to draw any reliable conclusions.
Results above £100 an hour have been excluded because they affect the quality of the data.
Figures have been rounded to the nearest pence. Totals may not sum due to rounding.
4. Data sources
Type of data
Type of statistic
Office for National Statistics
Purpose of data source
The main purpose of the Annual Population Survey (APS) is to provide good quality estimates about the UK workforce.
It is the largest household study in the UK based on how many people it’s sent to and how in depth the questions are. It provides the official measures of employment and unemployment.
The survey measures all elements of people's work, including:
- the education and training needed to equip them for work
- features of their jobs
- unemployment and jobseeking
- income from work and benefits
5. Download the data
Ethnicity, year, median hourly pay, mean hourly pay, denominator (weighted)