Average hourly pay

Published

1. Main facts and figures

This page will not be updated with 2020 data. This is because the Office for National Statistics (ONS) is reweighting the data we use for this page, to account for the effects of population changes and COVID-19 on labour market statistics.

  • in 2019, employees from the Indian ethnic group had the highest average hourly pay out of all ethnic groups (£14.43)

  • employees from the combined Pakistani and Bangladeshi ethnic group had the lowest (£10.55)

  • the average hourly pay for White employees was £12.21

  • employees from the Indian ethnic group had the highest hourly pay every year from 2013 to 2019

  • employees from the combined Pakistani and Bangladeshi ethnic group had the lowest hourly pay every year

  • the average hourly pay for all employees went up from £11.82 in 2018 to £12.17 in 2019 – an increase of 3.0%

2. Things you need to know

What the data measures

The data shows the average (median) hourly pay for all employees aged 16 and over in the UK. The data is based on ‘gross’ income before tax and other deductions.

Figures have been rounded to the nearest pence. Some totals may not add up because of rounding.

Not included in the data

The data does not include:

  • earnings of more than £100 per hour – high values are not very common, so excluding them allows the survey to give more accurate estimates
  • sample sizes of less than 30 – this is to protect people’s confidentiality and because the numbers are too small to make any reliable generalisations

The ethnic groups used in the data

The data uses the ethnic categories from the 2011 Census.

Data is aggregated for each of the Black, Mixed and Other ethnic groups, which means estimates are shown for these groups as a whole. Data is shown separately for White British and all other White people (‘White Other’ ethnic group). Separate estimates are also shown for 3 Asian ethnic groups (Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi, and Asian Other).

Ethnicity was not known for 0.05% of respondents in 2019. Data for people whose ethnicity was unknown is included in the averages for all ethnic groups ('All' in charts and tables).

Methodology

Read the detailed methodology document for the data on this page.

Employees give their hourly rates of pay as part of the Annual Population Survey (APS). This is less precise than asking their employers for their payroll records. As a result, the APS is known to underestimate pay rates, but it is used here because other sources do not collect people’s ethnicity (for example, data on earnings and working hours).

This analysis uses the median average, which is the middle point of a range of numbers arranged in order. Find out more about differences between the mean and median.

The figures on this page are based on survey data. Find out more about:

In the data file

See Download the data for the number of people who completed the survey, adjusted to represent the whole population (labelled ‘Weighted denominator’ in the data file).

3. By ethnicity over time

Average hourly pay by ethnicity over time
Ethnicity 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
£ £ £ £ £ £ £
All 10.54 10.69 10.82 11.02 11.41 11.82 12.17
Asian 10.07 9.82 10.16 11.00 11.14 11.80 12.32
Indian 11.55 12.03 11.75 12.50 12.76 13.46 14.43
Pakistani/ Bangladeshi 8.13 7.89 9.11 9.36 9.45 9.62 10.55
Other Asian (inc. Chinese) 10.17 9.27 9.76 10.63 11.06 12.50 12.03
Black 10.27 10.00 9.91 10.27 10.78 10.80 11.54
Mixed 11.00 10.41 10.71 11.26 10.71 12.16 12.30
White 10.58 10.81 10.91 11.05 11.46 11.87 12.21
White British 10.60 10.83 10.95 11.13 11.53 11.90 12.25
White Other 10.13 10.55 10.29 10.38 10.74 11.55 12.02
Other ethnic group 9.69 9.80 10.02 10.17 10.58 10.95 11.39

Download table data for ‘By ethnicity over time’ (CSV) Source data for ‘By ethnicity over time’ (CSV)

Summary of Average hourly pay By ethnicity over time Summary

The data shows that:

  • in 2019, the average hourly pay for all employees was £12.17 – it was £11.82 in 2018, and £10.54 in 2013

  • employees from the Indian ethnic group had the highest hourly pay out of all ethnic groups in 2019 (£14.43)

  • employees from the combined Pakistani and Bangladeshi ethnic group had the lowest

  • in every year covered by the data (2013 to 2019), employees from the Indian ethnic group had the highest average hourly pay - they also had the biggest value increase between 2018 and 2019, from £13.46 to £14.43 (97 pence)

  • employees from the combined Pakistani and Bangladeshi ethnic group had the lowest hourly pay each year – they also had the biggest percentage increase between 2018 and 2019, from £9.62 to £10.55 (9.7%)

  • the pay gap between employees from the Indian and the combined Pakistani and Bangladeshi ethnic groups was wider in 2019 (£3.88) than in 2013 (£3.42)

  • from 2018 to 2019, the smallest increase in average hourly pay was in the Mixed ethnic group, – from £12.16 to £12.30 (1.2% or 14 pence)

  • the only decrease in average hourly pay between 2018 and 2019 was in the Other Asian ethnic group – down from £12.50 to £12.03 (-3.8% or 47 pence)

4. Data sources

Source

Type of data

Survey data

Type of statistic

National Statistics

Publisher

Office for National Statistics

Note on corrections or updates

Higher-level figures may differ from those published by the Department for Work and Pensions and the Office for National Statistics that use the Labour Force Survey.

Publication frequency

Yearly

Purpose of data source

The Annual Population Survey (APS) is the largest ongoing household survey in the UK and covers a range of topics, including:

  • personal characteristics
  • labour market status
  • work characteristics
  • education
  • health

The purpose of the APS is to provide information on important social and socio-economic variables at local levels, such as labour market estimates.

The published statistics also allow the government to monitor estimates on a range of issues between censuses.

5. Download the data

Average hourly pay by ethnicity - Spreadsheet (csv) 4 KB

This file contains the following: measure, year, ethnicity, median hourly pay, denominator