People living in deprived neighbourhoods

Published

1. Main facts and figures

  • in 2019, people from all ethnic minority groups except the Indian, Chinese, White Irish and White Other groups were more likely than White British people to live in the most overall deprived 10% of neighbourhoods in England
  • the most overall deprived 10% of neighbourhoods are measured based on the index of multiple deprivation, which combines 7 types of deprivation
  • people from the Pakistani ethnic group were over 3 times as likely as White British people to live in the most overall deprived 10% of neighbourhoods
  • people from the Pakistani and Bangladeshi ethnic groups were over 3 times as likely as White British people to live in the most income-deprived 10% of neighbourhoods
  • people from the White British, White Irish and White Other ethnic groups were the least likely out of all ethnic groups to live in the most income-deprived 10% of neighbourhoods
  • people from the Pakistani ethnic group were more than twice as likely as White British people to live in the most employment-deprived 10% of neighbourhoods
  • people from the Indian ethnic group were the least likely out of all ethnic groups to be living in the most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods and the most employment-deprived 10% of neighbourhoods
Things you need to know

The data shows the percentage of people from different ethnic groups living in England’s most deprived neighbourhoods. It does not show if these people were themselves deprived. Not everyone living in a deprived neighbourhood is deprived, and many deprived people live in non-deprived areas. However, a high number of deprived people in a particular neighbourhood means that area is more likely to be deprived.

In this data, England is divided into neighbourhoods by population size (roughly, 1,500 people in each of the 32,844 areas). These 32,844 neighbourhoods are then divided into 10 equally sized groups, and ordered from the most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods to the least deprived 10%.

If 10% of each individual ethnic group also lived in the most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, it would suggest an even distribution of people living in deprived areas across all ethnic groups. But the data shows that some ethnic groups are disproportionately represented in the most deprived 10%.

The data combines 2011 population estimates and 2019 data on deprivation. When calculating the percentage of each ethnic group in each 10% group, it does not take into account the potential for people to have moved neighbourhoods between these time periods.

Using the latest available data means that there is not a single consistent time point for all indicators. For the highest weighted domains (income and employment deprivation), indicators in the index of deprivation 2019 relate to a 2015 to 2016 time point. The indicators do not take into account changes to policy since the time point of the data used.

What the data measures

The data measures the percentage of people from each ethnic group who live in the most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods in England.

The neighbourhoods can be viewed on an interactive map showing the location of the most and least deprived areas of England – which is also searchable by postcode

The measure uses the English index of multiple deprivation (IMD) 2019 to compare these neighbourhoods relative to each other, and list them on a scale from ‘least’ to ‘most’ deprived.

The IMD is made up of 7 types of deprivation:

  • income deprivation
  • employment deprivation
  • education, skills and training deprivation
  • health deprivation and disability
  • crime
  • barriers to housing and services
  • living environment deprivation

The data also shows what percentage of each ethnic group lived in the most deprived neighbourhoods in England for each of the 7 individual indices.

The IMD measures deprivation by comparing neighbourhoods with each other rather than against an absolute threshold.

Data commonly describes neighbourhoods as falling within ‘the most deprived 10%, 20% or 30%’ of neighbourhoods in England. However, there is no definitive cut-off point at which an area becomes ‘deprived’. Because of this, the decision to show information for the most deprived 10% of areas is somewhat arbitrary – the data could also have shown information for the most deprived 5%, or some other percentile.

The most deprived areas are:

  • concentrated in big cities
  • in areas that have historically had important heavy industry, manufacturing and/or mining sectors
  • in coastal towns
  • in much of east London

This pattern of deprivation has persisted over time.

The ethnic categories used in this data

This data uses the 18 standardised ethnic groups based on the 2011 Census.

2. Overall most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by ethnicity

Percentage and number of people living in the most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by ethnicity
Ethnicity % Number
All 9.9 5,249,400
Asian 15.7 649,079
Bangladeshi 19.3 84,362
Chinese 8.4 32,046
Indian 7.6 105,993
Pakistani 31.1 345,858
Asian other 9.9 80,820
Black 15.2 281,554
Black African 15.6 152,096
Black Caribbean 14.1 83,463
Black other 16.6 45,995
Mixed 13.2 157,100
Mixed White/Asian 10.1 33,704
Mixed White/Black African 13.7 22,143
Mixed White/Black Caribbean 17.4 72,293
Mixed other 10.2 28,960
White 9.0 4,088,373
White British 9.1 3,841,600
White Irish 8.1 42,014
White Gypsy/Traveller 11.7 6,450
White other 8.2 198,309
Other 13.4 73,294
Arab 15.5 34,271
Any other 11.9 39,023

Download table data for ‘Overall most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by ethnicity’ (CSV) Source data for ‘Overall most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by ethnicity’ (CSV)

Summary of People living in deprived neighbourhoods Overall most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by ethnicity Summary

The data for the overall most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods is based on the index of multiple deprivation, which combines 7 types of deprivation.

The data shows that:

  • Asian people as a whole (15.7%) were the most likely out of all ethnic groups to live in them, followed by Black people (15.2%)
  • White people were the least likely to live in them (9.0%)
  • out of the 18 individual ethnic groups, people from the Pakistani (31.1%) and Bangladeshi (19.3%) groups were the most likely to live in them
  • people from the Indian (7.6%), White Irish (8.1%) and White Other (8.2%) ethnic groups were the least likely to live in them

3. Most income-deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by ethnicity

Percentage and number of people living in the most income-deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by ethnicity
Ethnicity % Number
All 10.0 5,281,718
Asian 17.4 720,747
Bangladeshi 26.3 114,652
Chinese 8.9 33,940
Indian 9.8 137,024
Pakistani 30.7 341,444
Asian other 11.4 93,687
Black 19.8 365,056
Black African 20.2 197,463
Black Caribbean 18.2 107,635
Black other 21.6 59,958
Mixed 14.4 172,259
Mixed White/Asian 10.7 35,448
Mixed White/Black African 15.5 25,094
Mixed White/Black Caribbean 18.8 78,102
Mixed other 11.9 33,615
White 8.7 3,934,939
White British 8.7 3,670,721
White Irish 8.7 44,956
White Gypsy/Traveller 12.2 6,687
White other 8.7 212,575
Other 16.2 88,717
Arab 18.3 40,443
Any other 14.7 48,274

Download table data for ‘Most income-deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by ethnicity’ (CSV) Source data for ‘Most income-deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by ethnicity’ (CSV)

Summary of People living in deprived neighbourhoods Most income-deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by ethnicity Summary

The data for the most income-deprived 10% of neighbourhoods shows that:

  • Black people as a whole (19.8%) were the most likely to live in them, and White people were the least likely to (8.7%)
  • out of the 18 individual ethnic groups, people from the Pakistani (30.7%) and Bangladeshi (26.3%) groups were the most likely to live in the most income-deprived neighbourhoods
  • people from the White British, White Irish and White Other ethnic groups were the least likely to live in the most income-deprived neighbourhoods (8.7% of each ethnic group)

4. Most employment-deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by ethnicity

Percentage and number of people in living in the most employment-deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by ethnicity
Ethnicity % Number
All 9.8 5,170,404
Asian 11.4 470,382
Bangladeshi 14.3 62,500
Chinese 7.2 27,339
Indian 5.8 81,524
Pakistani 21.0 233,194
Asian other 8.0 65,825
Black 12.4 229,745
Black African 12.6 123,045
Black Caribbean 11.7 69,223
Black other 13.5 37,477
Mixed 11.7 139,836
Mixed White/Asian 8.8 29,156
Mixed White/Black African 12.2 19,781
Mixed White/Black Caribbean 15.7 65,278
Mixed other 9.1 25,621
White 9.4 4,267,569
White British 9.6 4,054,046
White Irish 7.6 39,210
White Gypsy/Traveller 10.3 5,644
White other 6.9 168,669
Other 11.5 62,872
Arab 14.2 31,409
Any other 9.6 31,463

Download table data for ‘Most employment-deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by ethnicity’ (CSV) Source data for ‘Most employment-deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by ethnicity’ (CSV)

Summary of People living in deprived neighbourhoods Most employment-deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by ethnicity Summary

The data for the most employment-deprived 10% of neighbourhoods shows that:

  • 12.4% of Black people as a whole lived in them, compared with 9.4% of White people
  • out of the 18 individual ethnic groups, people from the Pakistani (21.0%) and Mixed White and Black Caribbean (15.7%) ethnic groups were the most likely to live in them
  • people from the Indian ethnic group (5.8%) were the least likely to live in them

5. Most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by type of deprivation and ethnicity

Percentage of people living in the most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by type of deprivation and ethnicity
Ethnicity Education, training and skills % Health deprivation and disability % Crime % Barriers to housing & services % Living Environment %
All 9.8 9.8 10.0 10.6 10.3
Asian 13.5 9.6 14.7 18.4 16.8
Bangladeshi 15.4 10.6 19.6 21.5 16.0
Chinese 6.1 10.7 14.5 14.1 17.0
Indian 7.2 5.5 9.6 19.4 10.9
Pakistani 27.4 16.0 21.2 14.7 28.2
Asian other 7.8 7.0 12.2 22.0 11.6
Black 8.9 9.6 16.3 31.2 12.7
Black African 9.5 10.6 17.9 32.3 11.7
Black Caribbean 7.8 7.8 13.6 29.2 14.0
Black other 9.2 9.7 16.4 31.6 13.7
Mixed 10.7 10.8 13.6 15.6 12.3
Mixed White/Asian 8.7 8.5 11.8 12.7 12.5
Mixed White/Black African 10.4 12.0 15.5 19.5 12.2
Mixed White/Black Caribbean 14.2 13.8 15.1 14.8 12.2
Mixed other 7.9 8.4 12.5 17.8 12.5
White 9.5 9.7 9.1 8.7 9.5
White British 9.7 9.9 8.9 8.2 9.2
White Irish 6.0 8.0 10.6 12.9 11.6
White Gypsy/Traveller 13.7 10.1 13.0 16.4 10.6
White other 7.7 7.1 12.7 17.5 13.9
Other 8.5 9.9 15.5 23.4 14.7
Arab 9.4 12.3 17.1 21.9 17.2
Any other 7.9 8.2 14.4 24.4 13.1

Download table data for ‘Most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by type of deprivation and ethnicity’ (CSV) Source data for ‘Most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by type of deprivation and ethnicity’ (CSV)

Summary of People living in deprived neighbourhoods Most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by type of deprivation and ethnicity Summary

The data for the most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods shows that:

  • Black people as a whole were the most likely to live in the 10% of neighbourhoods most deprived in relation to crime (16.3%) and barriers to housing and services (31.2%)
  • White people were the least likely to live in the neighbourhoods most deprived in relation to living environment (9.5%), crime (9.1%) and barriers to housing and services (8.7%)
  • out of the 18 individual ethnic groups, Black African (32.3%), Black Other (31.6%), and Black Caribbean (29.2%) people were the most likely to live in the neighbourhoods most deprived in relation to housing and services
  • people from the Pakistani ethnic group were the most likely to live in the 10% of neighbourhoods most deprived in relation to education, skills and training (27.4%), health and disability (16.0%), crime (21.2%) and the living environment (28.2%)

6. Methodology

The index of multiple deprivation (IMD) 2019 ranks each of the 32,844 small areas in England. We refer to them here as neighbourhoods. The areas are ranked from the most deprived (ranked 1st) to the least deprived (ranked 32,844th).

Each neighbourhood contains about 1,500 people. The 2011 Census shows the number of people from each ethnic group that live in each one.

The IMD combines information about 7 different types of deprivation to produce an overall relative measure of deprivation.

Each of the 7 deprivation indices is based on a set of indicators, with 39 different data sources.

The details of the indicators used to compile the indices of deprivation, and more information on how the index of multiple deprivation is calculated, can be found in the technical report (PDF opens in a new window or tab) (PDF, 1.9MB).

The data downloads provide information on the percentage of people in each ethnic group who lived in the most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods according to the IMD and each of the 7 individual indices of deprivation.

Data is also provided on the percentages of people in each ethnic group who live in less deprived areas.

Rounding

All percentages are rounded to one decimal place.

Related publications

English indices of deprivation collection of publications.

Quality and methodology information

Further technical information

English indices of deprivation 2019: research report.

7. Data sources

Source

Type of data

Administrative data

Type of statistic

National Statistics

Publisher

Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government

Publication frequency

Every 3 to 5 years

Purpose of data source

The English indices of deprivation 2019 measure relative deprivation in small areas in England called ‘lower-layer super output areas’. The index of multiple deprivation (IMD) is the most widely used of these indices and is the official measure of relative deprivation in England. A range of measures which summarise the indices at local authority district level, and other geographies, are also available online.

National and local organisations use the IMD, sometimes in conjunction with other data, to distribute funding or target resources to areas. It is widely used across central government to focus programmes on the most deprived areas.

Locally, it is often used as evidence in the development of strategies, to target interventions, and in bids for funding. The voluntary and community sectors also use the IMD to identify areas where people may benefit from the services they provide.

Secondary source

Type of data

Survey data

Type of statistic

National Statistics

Publisher

Office for National Statistics

Publication frequency

Every 10 years

Purpose of data source

The Census is carried out every 10 years. The last one took place in March 2011.

Census data gives the government the information it needs to plan and run public services. It is also used as a benchmark for other statistical estimates, and it can help illustrate differences between various groups in the population.

8. Download the data

IMD and Domains of Deprivation - Spreadsheet (csv) 308 KB

This file contains the following: measure, domain of deprivation, decile of deprivation, ethnicity, value, numerator, denominator