Reading, writing and maths attainment for children aged 10 to 11 (key stage 2)
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1. Main facts and figures
- in 2017/18, 64% of pupils met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths by the end of key stage 2 (when they are usually 10 or 11 years old)
- 10% of pupils met the higher standard
- out of all ethnic groups, pupils from the Chinese group were the most to meet both the expected and higher standards
- White Gypsy/Roma pupils were the least likely to meet both the expected and higher standards
- girls were more likely than boys to meet both the expected and higher standards in most ethnic groups
- pupils eligible for free school meals (used as a sign of disadvantage) were less likely to meet the expected standard than other pupils
The ethnic categories used in this data
This data uses categories from the Department for Education’s school census. These groupings are broadly based on the 2001 national Census, with 3 exceptions:
- Traveller of Irish Heritage and Gypsy/Roma children have been separated into 2 categories
- Sri Lankan is included in the Asian/Asian British group but is not reported separately
- Chinese pupils have been assigned a separate category from Asian
These changes were made after consultations with local authorities and lobby groups.
Data is reported for broad and detailed ethnic categories. These are
- Sri Lankan
- Other Asian background
- Black African
- Black Caribbean
- Black Other
Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups:
- White and Black Caribbean
- White and Black African
- White and Asian
- Other Mixed background
- White British
- White Irish
- Traveller of Irish Heritage
- Other White
Other ethnic group
2. By ethnicity
|Ethnicity||expected standard||higher standard|
|Mixed White/Black African||65||10|
|Mixed White/Black Caribbean||57||6|
3. By ethnicity and eligibility for free school meals
|Mixed White/Black African||51||69|
|Mixed White/Black Caribbean||44||62|
4. By ethnicity and gender
|Ethnicity||Boys Expected standard||Boys Higher standard||Girls Expected standard||Girls Higher standard|
|Mixed White/Black African||61||8||70||11|
|Mixed White/Black Caribbean||52||5||62||8|
The key stage 2 datasets combine information from the following two data sources:
- prior attainment records (key stage 1 results)
- school census records
Key stage assessment data received from the Standard Testing Agency (STA) is matched to school census records to identify pupils’ ethnicities and free school meal eligibility.
Pupils with no valid result for a subject are excluded from the calculations for that subject and are not included in the number of eligible pupils or the outcome percentages for that subject.
Valid results are:
- achieved the expected standard
- not achieved the expected standard
- special consideration
- working below the standard of the test
- unable to access the test
Some pupils are eligible for free school meals (FSM) if their parents receive a qualifying benefit. We refer to these children as ‘FSM-eligible’. FSM eligibility is used as an indicator of disadvantage. However, not all eligible parents apply for FSM and some families who do not reach the eligibility threshold may still be experiencing deprivation.
We refer to pupils who are not eligible for FSM or where eligibility is unknown as ‘non-FSM’.
In 2017/18, 15% of pupils in year 6 (the final year of key stage 2) were known to be eligible for free school meals.
The Department for Education no longer suppress any of the data used in this page.
Percentages given in charts, tables and downloads are rounded to the nearest whole number.
6. Data sources
Type of data
Type of statistic
Department for Education
Purpose of data source
The main purpose is to measure schools' and pupils' progress and performance from key stage 1 to key stage 2, in order to monitor and improve standards and inform parental choice when applying to local schools.