Reading, writing and maths attainments for children aged 10 to 11 (key stage 2)
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1. Main facts and figures
- overall, in 2016/17, 61% of pupils met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths by the end of key stage 2 (when they are usually aged 10 or 11 years), and 9% met the higher standard
- pupils from the Chinese ethnic group were most likely to meet both the expected and higher standards out of all ethnic groups
- Gypsy/Roma children were least likely to meet the expected and higher standards
- across all ethnic groups, girls were more likely than boys to meet both the expected and higher standards
- across all ethnic groups, a lower percentage of pupils eligible for free school meals (FSM) met the expected standard
- the local authority where the highest percentage of pupils met the expected standard was the City of London, where 88% did so; however, the data for the City of London is based on small numbers of pupils and is therefore highly variable over time
The ethnic categories used in this data
This data uses categories from the Department for Education’s school census, which is broadly based on the 2001 national Census, with 3 exceptions:
- Traveller of Irish Heritage and Gypsy/Roma children have been separated into 2 categories
- Sri Lankan has been added to the Asian/Asian British group but is not reported separately
- Chinese pupils have been assigned a separate category
These changes were made after consultations with local authorities and lobby groups.
The categories in the school census are as follows:
- Sri Lankan
- Other Asian background
- Black African
- Black Caribbean
- Other Black background
Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups:
- White and Black Caribbean
- White and Black African
- White and Asian
- Other Mixed background
- White British
- White Irish
- Traveller of Irish Heritage
- Other White
Other ethnic group
Information is provided for both detailed and broad ethnic groups where possible and when the data is available.
The 6 broad categories used are as follows:
- Asian/Asian British
- Black/African/Caribbean/Black British
- Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups
- Other ethnic group
However, local authority data is only provided for 5 broad ethnic groups. Information about the specific ethnic categories is excluded to preserve confidentiality and ensure individuals cannot be identified. Information about the Other ethnic group is not given because DfE does not publish data for this group at the local authority level.
The 5 broad categories are as follows:
- Asian/Asian British
- Black/African/Caribbean/Black British
- Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups
2. By ethnicity
|Ethnicity||Expected standard||Higher standard|
|Mixed White/Black African||62||8|
|Mixed White/Black Caribbean||55||5|
|White Irish Traveller||20||withheld to protect confidentiality|
3. By ethnicity and eligibility for free school meals
|Mixed White/Black African||50||66|
|Mixed White/Black Caribbean||44||60|
|White Irish Traveller||17||28|
4. By ethnicity and area
|Barking and Dagenham||63||70||66||withheld to protect confidentiality||60||58|
|Bath and North East Somerset||63||75||23||withheld to protect confidentiality||59||64|
|Bedford||53||52||47||withheld to protect confidentiality||54||54|
|Blackburn with Darwen||60||61||50||withheld to protect confidentiality||55||59|
|Blackpool||62||66||withheld to protect confidentiality||withheld to protect confidentiality||67||62|
|Bournemouth||63||77||71||withheld to protect confidentiality||68||62|
|Brent||61||63||56||withheld to protect confidentiality||61||64|
|Brighton and Hove||64||55||55||65||65||65|
|Bristol, City of||61||62||46||withheld to protect confidentiality||57||64|
|Buckinghamshire||64||62||56||withheld to protect confidentiality||57||65|
|Calderdale||58||53||50||withheld to protect confidentiality||62||59|
|Camden||67||66||59||withheld to protect confidentiality||66||70|
|Cheshire East||64||74||57||withheld to protect confidentiality||62||64|
|Cheshire West and Chester||59||74||50||withheld to protect confidentiality||58||59|
|City of London||88||withheld to protect confidentiality||withheld to protect confidentiality||N/A*||withheld to protect confidentiality||withheld to protect confidentiality|
|Cornwall||59||52||withheld to protect confidentiality||63||66||58|
|Darlington||61||72||withheld to protect confidentiality||withheld to protect confidentiality||68||60|
|Derby||55||55||53||withheld to protect confidentiality||57||55|
|Doncaster||54||51||43||withheld to protect confidentiality||60||54|
|Dudley||55||56||46||withheld to protect confidentiality||58||56|
|Ealing||65||64||60||withheld to protect confidentiality||64||71|
|East Riding of Yorkshire||61||75||withheld to protect confidentiality||100||68||61|
|East Sussex||57||65||53||withheld to protect confidentiality||62||57|
|Enfield||61||74||58||withheld to protect confidentiality||68||58|
|Halton||56||withheld to protect confidentiality||withheld to protect confidentiality||withheld to protect confidentiality||68||56|
|Hammersmith and Fulham||74||72||72||withheld to protect confidentiality||76||74|
|Harrow||70||76||61||withheld to protect confidentiality||71||67|
|Hartlepool||65||68||withheld to protect confidentiality||withheld to protect confidentiality||60||65|
|Herefordshire, County of||60||withheld to protect confidentiality||withheld to protect confidentiality||100||66||60|
|Hounslow||66||72||61||withheld to protect confidentiality||68||62|
|Isle of Wight||55||69||withheld to protect confidentiality||withheld to protect confidentiality||59||55|
|Isles of Scilly||35||N/A*||N/A*||N/A*||N/A*||35|
|Islington||66||77||58||withheld to protect confidentiality||65||68|
|Kensington and Chelsea||76||71||74||100||73||78|
|Kingston upon Hull, City of||63||70||57||100||77||62|
|Kingston upon Thames||65||62||57||withheld to protect confidentiality||69||65|
|Leicester||58||64||60||withheld to protect confidentiality||59||50|
|Merton||66||73||62||withheld to protect confidentiality||65||63|
|Newcastle upon Tyne||63||65||61||70||66||64|
|North East Lincolnshire||59||73||100||withheld to protect confidentiality||72||59|
|North Lincolnshire||59||69||38||withheld to protect confidentiality||67||59|
|Northumberland||61||79||withheld to protect confidentiality||withheld to protect confidentiality||59||61|
|Oldham||57||53||59||withheld to protect confidentiality||60||60|
|Poole||59||74||withheld to protect confidentiality||withheld to protect confidentiality||66||58|
|Portsmouth||57||67||60||withheld to protect confidentiality||65||56|
|Reading||59||63||57||withheld to protect confidentiality||54||60|
|Redcar and Cleveland||69||60||N/A*||withheld to protect confidentiality||79||69|
|Richmond upon Thames||76||70||57||67||75||78|
|Rochdale||56||54||50||withheld to protect confidentiality||66||56|
|Rutland||67||withheld to protect confidentiality||withheld to protect confidentiality||withheld to protect confidentiality||69||66|
|Salford||61||76||63||withheld to protect confidentiality||56||62|
|Shropshire||62||65||38||withheld to protect confidentiality||71||62|
|Solihull||65||72||64||withheld to protect confidentiality||57||64|
|Somerset||59||69||53||withheld to protect confidentiality||61||59|
|South Gloucestershire||60||78||51||withheld to protect confidentiality||56||60|
|South Tyneside||65||66||57||withheld to protect confidentiality||74||65|
|Southampton||62||67||69||withheld to protect confidentiality||66||61|
|Southend-on-Sea||66||80||76||withheld to protect confidentiality||73||64|
|St. Helens||58||86||withheld to protect confidentiality||withheld to protect confidentiality||59||58|
|Stockton-on-Tees||64||61||65||withheld to protect confidentiality||79||64|
|Sunderland||68||64||withheld to protect confidentiality||100||64||68|
|Telford and Wrekin||61||60||59||withheld to protect confidentiality||61||61|
|Torbay||60||69||withheld to protect confidentiality||withheld to protect confidentiality||60||59|
|Wandsworth||69||66||60||withheld to protect confidentiality||64||77|
|Warrington||70||78||80||withheld to protect confidentiality||69||69|
|West Berkshire||62||73||77||withheld to protect confidentiality||62||61|
|Wigan||66||72||58||withheld to protect confidentiality||72||66|
|Windsor and Maidenhead||66||69||58||withheld to protect confidentiality||64||67|
|Wirral||57||61||withheld to protect confidentiality||67||71||57|
|Wokingham||70||82||69||withheld to protect confidentiality||73||68|
|Wolverhampton||60||66||65||withheld to protect confidentiality||58||58|
|Worcestershire||57||55||68||withheld to protect confidentiality||61||57|
5. By ethnicity and gender
|Ethnicity||Boys Expected standard||Boys Higher standard||Girls Expected standard||Girls Higher standard|
|Mixed White/Black African||58||6||66||9|
|Mixed White/Black Caribbean||50||4||60||6|
|White Irish Traveller||18||withheld to protect confidentiality||22||withheld to protect confidentiality|
The key stage 2 datasets are compiled using information matched together from 3 data sources:
- prior attainment records (key stage 1 results)
- school census records
- qualification entries and results collected from awarding bodies
Key stage assessment data received from the Standard Testing Agency (STA) is combined with information on pupil's characteristics from the school census and prior attainment. Records are matched, using fields such as surname, forename, date of birth, UPN (unique pupil number), gender and postcode. This successfully matches around 60% to 75% of pupils.
Additional, more complex, routines are then applied to match as many of the remaining pupils as possible, up to around 98%. The coverage of the local authority and regional statistics is state-funded mainstream schools only in England. This includes schools and academies but excludes hospital schools, pupil referral units and alternative provision.
Any pupils who do not have a valid result for a subject are excluded from the calculations for that subject and do not appear in the number of eligible pupils or in the outcome percentages for that subject.
Valid results for the national test figures are:
- achieved the expected standard
- not achieved the expected standard
- special consideration
- working below the standard of the test
- unable to access the test
Changes to assessment:
Because of a change in the way pupils are assessed, data published before 2016 is not comparable to 2015/16 and 2016/17 data.
The system of national curriculum levels is no longer used by the government to report on end of key stage assessment.
This measure has been replaced by 'value added' progress measures in reading, writing and mathematics.
There is no 'target' for the amount of progress an individual pupil is expected to make, and any amount of progress a pupil makes contributes towards the school's progress scores.
Free school meals:
Pupils are included in the figures for free school meals (FSM) if their families have claimed eligibility for FSM at the time of the annual spring school census. This FSM definition includes all who were eligible to receive FSM, not only those who actually received FSM. Pupils not eligible for FSM or unclassified pupils are described as ‘non-FSM’ or ‘pupils not eligible for FSM’.
Parents are able to claim FSM if they receive a qualifying benefit.
FSM is used as an indicator of disadvantage, but when drawing conclusions, it should be remembered that not all eligible parents apply for FSM. Families who don’t quite reach the eligibility threshold for FSM may still be suffering deprivation.
Suppression rules and disclosure control
Values of 1 or 2 or a percentage based on 1 or 2 pupils who achieved, or did not achieve, a particular standard are suppressed. Some additional figures may be suppressed to prevent the possibility of a suppressed figure being revealed. This suppression is consistent with DfE’s statistical policy statement on confidentiality (PDF).
Regional eligible pupil figures are rounded to the nearest 10 so that it is not possible to derive figures for these local authorities by summing the figures for the other local authorities in the region.
In the school level data, any figures relating to a cohort of 5 pupils or fewer are suppressed. This applies to sub-groups of pupils as well as the whole cohort, for example, if there were five boys and three girls in a school, DfE would not publish attainment for boys or girls separately but would publish attainment for all pupils as this is based on 8 pupils.
Percentages given in charts, tables and downloads are rounded to the nearest whole number.
7. Data sources
Type of data
Type of statistic
Department for Education
3 times a year
Purpose of data source
The main purpose is to measure schools' and pupils' progress and performance from key stage 1 to key stage 2 to monitor and improve standards and inform parental choice when applying to local schools.
8. Download the data
This file contains the following variables: Measure, Ethnicity, Ethnicity_Type, Time, Time_Type, Region, Local_Authority, Local_Authority_Code, Value, Value_Type, Denominator.
This file contains the following variables: Measure, Ethnicity, Ethnicity_Type, Time, Time_Type, Geography (England), Geography_Code, Gender, FSM, Value, Value_Type, Denominator.