Reading, writing and maths results for 10 to 11 year olds

Published

1. Main facts and figures

  • in 2017/18, 64% of pupils met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths by the end of key stage 2 (when they are usually 10 or 11 years old)
  • 10% of pupils met the higher standard
  • out of all ethnic groups, pupils from the Chinese group were the most to meet both the expected and higher standards
  • White Gypsy/Roma pupils were the least likely to meet both the expected and higher standards
  • girls were more likely than boys to meet both the expected and higher standards in most ethnic groups
  • pupils eligible for free school meals (used as a sign of disadvantage) were less likely to meet the expected standard than other pupils
Things you need to know

In 2017/18, there were 619,350 pupils assessed for reading, writing and maths in key stage 2 in state-funded mainstream schools, and ethnicity was known for 613,802 (99%) of them.

Of those whose ethnicity was known, 75% were White, 11% were Asian, 6% were Black, 6% were Mixed, 0.4% were Chinese and 2% were from another ethnic group.

Attainment in all of reading, writing and maths is not directly comparable to previous years because of changes to writing teacher assessment frameworks.

Previous versions of this page included attainment figures broken down by local authority area. The 2017/18 figures for local authorities will be added as soon as they are available.

What the data measures

This data measures the percentage of eligible pupils who met the expected and higher standards in reading, writing and maths at the end of key stage 2 when children are 10 or 11 years old.

The data covers the academic year 2017/18 (September 2017 to July 2018). Data for the academic year 2015/16 and 2016/17 is available in the download file.

The standards are:

  • expected standard – to meet this, pupils must have achieved a ‘scaled score’ of 100 or more in reading and maths, and have been assessed in writing as 'working at the expected standard' or 'working at a greater depth within the expected standard'
  • higher standard (sometimes called the ‘high score’) – to meet this, pupils must have achieved a ‘scaled score’ of 110 or more in reading and maths, and have been assessed in writing as 'working at a greater depth within the expected standard'

A pupil’s scaled score can range from 80 to 120. A scaled score allows for variations in test difficulty year on year by standardising each pupil’s test results. This allows a clearer comparison between years.

You can read more about scaled scores at key stage 2.

The ethnic categories used in this data

This data uses categories from the Department for Education’s school census. These groupings are broadly based on the 2001 national Census, with 3 exceptions:

  • Traveller of Irish Heritage and Gypsy/Roma children have been separated into 2 categories
  • Sri Lankan is included in the Asian/Asian British group but is not reported separately
  • Chinese pupils have been assigned a separate category from Asian

These changes were made after consultations with local authorities and lobby groups.

Data is reported for broad and detailed ethnic categories. These are

Asian/Asian British:

  • Indian
  • Pakistani
  • Bangladeshi
  • Sri Lankan
  • Other Asian background

Black/African/Caribbean/Black British:

  • Black African
  • Black Caribbean
  • Black Other

Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups:

  • White and Black Caribbean
  • White and Black African
  • White and Asian
  • Other Mixed background

White:

  • White British
  • White Irish
  • Traveller of Irish Heritage
  • Gypsy/Roma
  • Other White

Chinese

Other ethnic group

2. By ethnicity

Percentage of pupils meeting the expected and higher standards in reading, writing and maths by ethnicity
Ethnicity expected standard higher standard
All 64 10
Asian 68 12
Bangladeshi 69 11
Indian 76 18
Pakistani 61 7
Asian other 72 15
Black 63 8
Black African 66 9
Black Caribbean 55 5
Black other 61 7
Chinese 81 28
Mixed 66 11
Mixed White/Asian 72 16
Mixed White/Black African 65 10
Mixed White/Black Caribbean 57 6
Mixed other 68 13
White 64 10
White British 65 10
White Irish 70 15
Gypsy/Roma 18 0
Irish Traveller 22 0
White other 61 9
Other 61 9
Unknown 52 8

Download table data for ‘By ethnicity’ (CSV) Source data for ‘By ethnicity’ (CSV)

Summary

The data shows that:

  • overall, in 2017/18, 64% of pupils met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths (when they are usually 10 or 11 years old), and 10% met the higher standard
  • pupils from the Chinese ethnic group had the highest attainment of all the ethnic groups, with 81% of pupils meeting the expected standard and 28% meeting the higher standard
  • White Gypsy/Roma pupils had the lowest attainment, with 18% meeting the expected standard and 0% meeting the higher standard

3. By ethnicity and eligibility for free school meals

Percentage of pupils meeting the expected standard in reading, writing and maths by ethnicity and free school meals
Ethnicity FSM Non-FSM
% %
All 46 68
Asian 57 70
Bangladeshi 63 70
Indian 61 77
Pakistani 53 63
Asian other 58 74
Black 54 66
Black African 57 68
Black Caribbean 47 58
Black other 54 63
Chinese 77 82
Mixed 50 70
Mixed White/Asian 52 76
Mixed White/Black African 51 69
Mixed White/Black Caribbean 44 62
Mixed other 53 71
White 43 67
White British 43 68
White Irish 40 75
Gypsy/Roma 15 19
Irish Traveller 20 29
White other 48 62
Other 49 64
Unknown 45 53

Download table data for ‘By ethnicity and eligibility for free school meals’ (CSV) Source data for ‘By ethnicity and eligibility for free school meals’ (CSV)

Summary

This data shows that:

  • in 2017/18, 15% of pupils in year 6 were known to be eligible for free school meals (FSM)
  • 46% of FSM-eligible pupils met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths, compared with 68% of non-FSM pupils
  • in every ethnic group, FSM-eligible pupils were less likely to meet the expected standard than non-FSM pupils
  • pupils from the Chinese ethnic group had the highest attainment of any FSM-eligible group – with 77% meeting the expected standard – and of any non-FSM group, with 82% meeting the expected standard
  • White Gypsy/Roma pupils had the lowest attainment of any FSM-eligible group – with 15% meeting the expected standard – and of any non-FSM group, with 19% meeting the expected standard

4. By ethnicity and gender

Percentage of pupils meeting the expected and higher standards in reading, writing and maths by ethnicity and gender
Boys Girls
Ethnicity Expected standard Higher standard Expected standard Higher standard
All 61 8 68 12
Asian 65 10 72 14
Bangladeshi 66 9 73 13
Indian 73 15 80 21
Pakistani 58 6 65 9
Asian other 69 12 75 18
Black 58 7 68 10
Black African 62 8 70 11
Black Caribbean 49 4 61 6
Black other 56 5 67 9
Chinese 78 23 85 33
Mixed 62 9 69 13
Mixed White/Asian 69 13 75 18
Mixed White/Black African 61 8 70 11
Mixed White/Black Caribbean 52 5 62 8
Mixed other 65 11 72 15
White 60 8 68 11
White British 61 8 69 11
White Irish 65 12 75 17
Gypsy/Roma 15 1 20 0
Irish Traveller 22 0 23 0
White other 57 8 65 11
Other 57 8 64 10
Unknown 49 7 56 10

Download table data for ‘By ethnicity and gender’ (CSV) Source data for ‘By ethnicity and gender’ (CSV)

Summary

The data shows that:

  • in every ethnic group, girls had a higher attainment than boys at the expected and higher standards, with the exception of White Gypsy/Roma and White Irish Traveler pupils at the higher standard
  • overall, 68% of girls met the expected standard compared with 61% of boys, and 12% of girls met the higher standard compared with 8% of boys
  • girls from the Chinese ethnic group had the highest attainment amongst boys and girls of all ethnic groups, with 85% meeting the expected standard and 33% meeting the higher standard
  • White Gypsy/Roma boys had the lowest attainment amongst boys and girls of all ethnic groups, with 15% meeting the expected standard
  • the largest gap between boys and girls within the expected standard was found among Black Caribbean pupils, with 61% of girls meeting the expected standard compared to 49% of boys – a gap of 12 percentage points
  • the largest gap between boys and girls within the higher standard was found among Chinese pupils, with 33% of girls meeting the higher standard compared to 23% of boys – a gap of 10 percentage points

5. By ethnicity and area

All Asian Black Chinese Mixed White
Local Authority % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number
Barking and Dagenham 67 2,270 75 515 69 760 86 6 66 175 60 761
Barnet 73 2,901 79 345 66 329 91 50 70 288 75 1,589
Barnsley 65 1,760 71 12 68 15 100 4 72 38 64 1,672
Bath and North East Somerset 66 1,256 64 18 33 4 57 4 63 63 67 1,156
Bedford 48 971 48 151 42 54 86 6 48 96 49 647
Bexley 70 2,231 86 216 75 455 97 29 69 161 66 1,321
Birmingham 61 9,524 63 3,607 60 1,230 77 50 59 786 59 3,253
Blackburn with Darwen 66 1,427 68 677 64 21 100 5 66 42 64 677
Blackpool 62 1,018 71 22 100 5 78 7 60 33 61 947
Bolton 66 2,478 68 605 56 127 92 12 72 110 66 1,587
Bournemouth 67 1,112 88 60 74 14 75 9 68 73 66 934
Bracknell Forest 64 874 74 63 63 29 100 3 67 56 63 714
Bradford 61 4,639 63 2,055 58 70 67 2 59 244 59 2,160
Brent 63 2,309 68 711 59 553 83 5 62 159 66 635
Brighton and Hove 67 1,768 65 60 57 30 91 10 66 196 68 1,418
Bristol, City of 63 2,922 55 210 51 288 85 22 59 215 67 2,150
Bromley 75 2,736 82 160 70 235 76 22 77 313 75 1,939
Buckinghamshire 66 4,051 69 703 59 98 80 16 64 288 66 2,882
Bury 64 1,465 52 177 59 33 80 4 61 72 66 1,152
Calderdale 62 1,622 62 250 63 10 0 0 54 51 62 1,296
Cambridgeshire 61 4,156 68 189 52 44 95 37 67 242 61 3,576
Camden 72 1,087 71 221 66 219 100 7 77 131 73 432
Central Bedfordshire 62 2,046 71 60 56 51 85 11 61 129 62 1,770
Cheshire East 68 2,735 72 51 53 10 73 11 73 115 68 2,519
Cheshire West and Chester 64 2,422 64 38 53 8 73 11 72 79 63 2,274
City of London 72 21 40 2 50 1 N/A* N/A* 67 2 80 12
Cornwall 61 3,524 67 18 83 5 78 7 66 79 61 3,378
County Durham 68 3,766 80 28 44 7 77 10 79 56 68 3,638
Coventry 62 2,583 71 584 61 333 73 11 61 178 59 1,431
Croydon 67 3,006 76 542 64 864 87 20 68 450 66 1,038
Cumbria 65 3,318 81 29 43 3 79 11 65 41 65 3,194
Darlington 65 800 76 22 80 4 100 3 52 15 65 750
Derby 60 1,942 66 382 64 89 73 11 68 187 58 1,242
Derbyshire 64 5,257 68 63 58 18 73 19 63 142 64 4,977
Devon 64 4,999 77 33 44 7 86 12 73 131 64 4,747
Doncaster 60 2,114 62 64 47 21 88 14 60 62 61 1,929
Dorset 60 2,586 65 24 64 9 78 7 68 104 59 2,420
Dudley 58 2,108 62 266 53 49 60 6 56 130 58 1,618
Ealing 68 2,789 71 856 59 385 80 12 70 271 71 843
East Riding of Yorkshire 64 2,280 71 10 50 1 50 1 72 48 64 2,206
East Sussex 64 3,411 78 94 50 17 75 9 62 152 64 3,085
Enfield 65 2,864 76 298 63 708 83 20 68 295 62 1,321
Essex 66 10,557 85 379 71 379 88 64 66 518 64 8,998
Gateshead 71 1,479 61 23 79 27 69 9 58 19 71 1,348
Gloucestershire 63 4,100 72 144 57 51 54 7 60 193 63 3,644
Greenwich 70 2,282 82 200 74 863 83 35 69 230 65 882
Hackney 71 1,782 77 238 68 619 80 16 68 175 72 610
Halton 63 927 100 3 75 3 N/A* N/A* 75 30 63 881
Hammersmith and Fulham 74 995 80 72 69 246 100 2 76 134 78 415
Hampshire 68 9,850 77 323 61 108 92 46 71 403 68 8,876
Haringey 66 2,035 74 131 59 485 74 29 75 242 68 1,010
Harrow 73 2,012 77 1,039 66 194 100 14 73 150 70 515
Hartlepool 67 754 78 21 100 2 50 2 75 9 66 718
Havering 70 2,080 78 159 71 248 94 16 73 128 69 1,496
Herefordshire, County of 68 1,279 86 6 0 0 67 2 63 27 68 1,234
Hertfordshire 67 9,084 76 798 62 366 85 57 69 688 66 7,038
Hillingdon 66 2,434 73 740 62 250 60 6 68 310 62 923
Hounslow 70 2,065 78 711 64 240 100 17 71 179 66 675
Isle of Wight 54 717 67 12 0 0 75 3 71 27 54 672
Isles of Scilly 56 19 N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* 0 0 58 19
Islington 69 1,280 74 111 60 264 100 10 71 206 71 600
Kensington and Chelsea 76 728 76 28 70 112 100 4 74 131 80 295
Kent 67 11,557 80 512 72 311 90 43 69 637 66 9,855
Kingston upon Hull, City of 67 2,093 85 39 56 35 83 5 65 85 67 1,875
Kingston upon Thames 71 1,265 75 229 52 30 92 23 73 120 71 754
Kirklees 62 3,251 61 873 55 62 67 8 52 179 63 2,091
Knowsley 62 1,058 86 38 94 15 80 4 68 27 61 971
Lambeth 70 2,075 75 105 64 829 80 12 74 311 75 687
Lancashire 65 8,830 63 1,013 61 43 82 27 62 278 65 7,413
Leeds 61 5,457 59 638 53 353 91 50 59 309 63 3,985
Leicester 62 2,788 68 1,293 59 288 100 13 58 183 56 901
Leicestershire 66 4,940 72 417 69 55 84 27 60 208 65 4,185
Lewisham 69 2,317 74 187 65 855 82 37 68 323 71 783
Lincolnshire 60 4,620 86 60 60 21 81 13 59 139 60 4,339
Liverpool 62 3,038 69 121 64 158 76 55 66 164 61 2,436
Luton 59 1,830 61 880 57 196 50 2 62 155 58 573
Manchester 62 4,097 60 914 65 796 74 39 64 357 63 1,718
Medway 63 2,042 76 112 74 151 100 9 71 159 61 1,578
Merton 69 1,595 75 411 62 211 84 16 69 164 69 751
Middlesbrough 64 1,147 70 123 53 17 100 2 72 63 64 923
Milton Keynes 65 2,281 79 348 63 362 86 18 67 186 62 1,322
Newcastle upon Tyne 70 1,932 69 283 69 98 79 19 77 89 69 1,390
Newham 76 3,483 78 1,643 76 835 93 13 78 225 70 536
Norfolk 59 5,222 72 84 59 51 60 18 62 161 59 4,835
North East Lincolnshire 65 1,241 79 11 100 5 100 2 70 40 65 1,169
North Lincolnshire 65 1,278 72 55 29 2 N/A* N/A* 65 32 65 1,170
North Somerset 64 1,529 58 15 50 4 75 3 64 49 64 1,446
North Tyneside 68 1,520 73 44 70 19 100 7 65 40 68 1,403
North Yorkshire 62 3,634 74 64 40 8 67 8 64 94 62 3,429
Northamptonshire 61 5,488 66 277 58 274 93 26 62 312 61 4,555
Northumberland 65 2,162 74 40 100 6 50 1 74 40 64 2,066
Nottingham 62 2,141 68 401 63 236 82 14 58 263 61 1,160
Nottinghamshire 65 5,889 71 193 61 55 72 28 65 280 65 5,288
Oldham 63 2,103 58 671 69 75 86 6 64 93 65 1,229
Oxfordshire 63 4,472 63 257 60 103 80 20 61 268 64 3,729
Peterborough 54 1,497 55 280 59 66 67 4 51 84 54 1,022
Plymouth 63 1,801 69 22 54 15 81 13 59 51 63 1,667
Poole 61 860 76 28 33 3 N/A* N/A* 55 36 62 784
Portsmouth 57 1,209 72 106 68 46 60 6 48 46 56 976
Reading 60 984 67 218 58 98 80 4 57 99 58 539
Redbridge 71 2,774 74 1,538 63 278 89 17 69 236 70 639
Redcar and Cleveland 71 1,123 67 6 67 2 N/A* N/A* 69 22 71 1,087
Richmond upon Thames 81 1,717 76 128 66 43 94 15 82 180 82 1,293
Rochdale 60 1,753 56 406 57 69 80 4 59 87 62 1,162
Rotherham 62 2,005 70 183 60 32 75 3 60 55 61 1,713
Rutland 66 260 80 4 0 0 100 1 86 12 66 241
Salford 65 1,858 78 70 72 109 86 6 71 153 64 1,448
Sandwell 61 2,624 67 871 63 277 77 10 57 209 57 1,193
Sefton 67 1,943 77 27 82 9 67 2 73 44 67 1,841
Sheffield 62 3,797 67 506 60 232 79 22 61 275 62 2,631
Shropshire 63 1,864 88 22 40 2 67 4 58 45 63 1,763
Slough 69 1,557 78 845 64 124 100 1 60 125 58 384
Solihull 66 1,753 72 210 67 36 100 6 63 147 65 1,327
Somerset 62 3,452 69 45 71 15 68 13 63 90 62 3,267
South Gloucestershire 63 1,981 79 88 59 30 75 9 66 107 63 1,726
South Tyneside 68 1,094 63 38 80 8 50 1 67 22 68 1,010
Southampton 66 1,707 67 216 61 56 67 8 69 121 66 1,282
Southend-on-Sea 69 1,440 80 117 74 67 75 9 64 83 68 1,130
Southwark 69 2,168 74 128 65 902 72 28 71 243 75 678
St. Helens 63 1,281 56 14 36 4 80 4 60 25 63 1,226
Staffordshire 65 6,098 63 246 70 51 79 19 63 192 65 5,547
Stockport 67 2,227 72 167 48 22 72 13 69 134 66 1,853
Stockton-on-Tees 71 1,694 70 83 74 25 91 10 65 36 70 1,526
Stoke-on-Trent 58 1,802 56 271 63 64 76 13 57 87 59 1,347
Suffolk 61 4,685 73 106 57 35 89 8 64 286 60 4,153
Sunderland 68 2,176 68 97 74 20 62 8 70 35 68 2,008
Surrey 70 8,440 74 639 62 119 93 52 71 507 69 6,966
Sutton 74 1,699 88 378 73 131 89 25 76 167 70 958
Swindon 63 1,763 71 212 61 54 78 7 63 99 63 1,378
Tameside 64 1,778 61 205 61 38 42 5 64 79 64 1,425
Telford and Wrekin 67 1,491 74 94 58 49 100 7 74 93 66 1,244
Thurrock 66 1,554 79 95 77 286 88 14 65 90 62 1,017
Torbay 63 869 69 11 67 2 100 5 68 30 62 813
Tower Hamlets 72 2,324 73 1,514 64 228 95 18 66 135 72 333
Trafford 76 2,213 82 348 75 93 95 36 76 158 74 1,498
Wakefield 60 2,315 55 93 60 28 82 9 65 84 60 2,081
Walsall 61 2,200 68 589 62 115 84 16 63 140 59 1,312
Waltham Forest 70 2,264 73 642 66 418 89 33 72 253 70 839
Wandsworth 71 1,719 72 314 61 364 100 11 70 218 77 747
Warrington 71 1,792 79 56 57 8 75 9 75 51 71 1,655
Warwickshire 67 4,073 77 262 55 46 100 18 70 194 67 3,504
West Berkshire 64 1,130 76 51 55 11 63 5 74 67 63 982
West Sussex 62 5,413 68 290 51 71 71 15 66 273 61 4,673
Westminster 72 1,024 73 165 70 168 81 21 78 122 76 275
Wigan 70 2,495 76 42 65 24 75 9 65 53 70 2,344
Wiltshire 63 3,267 77 61 49 29 56 5 65 116 63 2,982
Windsor and Maidenhead 69 1,040 69 161 64 9 86 6 64 81 69 761
Wirral 60 2,269 70 80 71 12 88 15 64 75 60 2,069
Wokingham 72 1,421 85 233 66 43 90 18 68 85 70 1,028
Wolverhampton 65 2,121 74 551 63 259 100 7 60 227 63 1,042
Worcestershire 61 3,797 59 142 54 14 90 9 64 145 61 3,448
York 66 1,254 75 30 67 8 89 8 62 32 66 1,161

Download table data for ‘By ethnicity and area’ (CSV) Source data for ‘By ethnicity and area’ (CSV)

Summary

Figures broken down by ethnicity and local authority are often based on small numbers of pupils. As a result, they are likely to change from year to year. The Isle of Scilly had 19 pupils in year 6, and the City of London had 21. Please treat the results for these 2 local authorities with particular caution.

The data shows that:

  • in 2017/18, 81% of pupils in Richmond Upon Thames met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths, the highest percentage out of all local authorities
  • 48% of pupils in Bedford met the expected standard, the lowest percentage out of all local authorities

6. Methodology

The key stage 2 datasets combine information from the following two data sources:

  • prior attainment records (key stage 1 results)
  • school census records

Key stage assessment data received from the Standard Testing Agency (STA) is matched to school census records to identify pupils’ ethnicities and free school meal eligibility.

Pupils with no valid result for a subject are excluded from the calculations for that subject and are not included in the number of eligible pupils or the outcome percentages for that subject.

Valid results are:

  • achieved the expected standard
  • not achieved the expected standard
  • special consideration
  • absent
  • working below the standard of the test
  • unable to access the test

Some pupils are eligible for free school meals (FSM) if their parents receive a qualifying benefit. We refer to these children as ‘FSM-eligible’. FSM eligibility is used as an indicator of disadvantage. However, not all eligible parents apply for FSM and some families who do not reach the eligibility threshold may still be experiencing deprivation.

We refer to pupils who are not eligible for FSM or where eligibility is unknown as ‘non-FSM’.

In 2017/18, 15% of pupils in year 6 (the final year of key stage 2) were known to be eligible for free school meals.

The Department for Education no longer suppress any of the data used in this page.

Rounding

Percentages given in charts, tables and downloads are rounded to the nearest whole number.

Related publications

Schools, pupils and their characteristics: January 2018.

Quality and methodology information

7. Data sources

Source

Type of data

Administrative data

Type of statistic

National Statistics

Publisher

Department for Education

Publication frequency

Yearly

Purpose of data source

The main purpose is to measure schools' and pupils' progress and performance from key stage 1 to key stage 2, in order to monitor and improve standards and inform parental choice when applying to local schools.

8. Download the data