Reading, writing and maths results for 10 to 11 year olds

Published

1. Main facts and figures

  • 65% of 10 to 11 year olds met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths in the school year 2018 to 2019
  • 11% of pupils met the higher standard
  • pupils from the Chinese ethnic group were most likely to meet both the expected and higher standards
  • White Gypsy and Roma pupils were least likely to meet both the expected and higher standards
  • in every ethnic group except White Irish Traveller, girls were more likely than boys to meet the expected and higher standards
  • in every ethnic group, pupils eligible for free school meals were less likely to meet the expected standard than other pupils
Things you need to know

In the 2018 to 2019 school year, 644,377 pupils were assessed for reading, writing and maths in key stage 2 at state-funded schools.

Ethnicity was known for 99% of pupils. Of those:

  • 74% of pupils were White
  • 11% were Asian
  • 6% had Mixed ethnicity
  • 6% were Black
  • 0.4% were from the Chinese ethnic group
  • 2% were from Other ethnic groups

Numbers of pupils vary in the results for different subjects. This is because pupils who don’t have a valid result for a particular subject are excluded from the total. For more about valid results, see the Methodology.

Results for reading, writing and maths in the 2018 to 2019 school year are not directly comparable to earlier years. This is due to changes to the writing teacher assessment frameworks in 2018.

There were 2,320 White Gypsy and Roma pupils and 473 Traveller of Irish Heritage pupils.

The Isles of Scilly had 19 pupils and the City of London had 28. Please use caution when interpreting figures for these groups and local authorities as they are based on small numbers of pupils.

What the data measures

This data measures the percentage of pupils who met the expected and higher standards in reading, writing and maths at the end of key stage 2.

The data covers the 2018 to 2019 school year. The download file also provides attainment for pupils who were eligible for free school meals and those who were not eligible.

The standards are:

  • expected standard – pupils have a ‘scaled score’ of 100 or more in reading and maths, and are 'working at the expected standard' or 'working at a greater depth within the expected standard' in writing
  • higher standard – pupils have a ‘scaled score’ of 110 or more in reading and maths, and are 'working at a greater depth within the expected standard' in writing

Scaled scores range from 80 to 120. They allow for variations in test difficulty year on year, making it possible to make a clearer comparison between years. You can read more about scaled scores at key stage 2.

The ethnic categories used in this data

This data uses categories from the Department for Education’s school census. These groupings are broadly based on the 2001 national Census, with 2 exceptions:

  • White Irish Traveller and White Gypsy and Roma children have been separated into 2 categories
  • pupils in the Chinese ethnic group are in a separate category from Asian pupils

These changes were made after consultations with local authorities and lobby groups.

Local authority data is only provided for 6 ethnic groups:

  • Asian
  • Black
  • Chinese
  • Mixed
  • White
  • Other

2. By ethnicity

Percentage of pupils meeting the expected and higher standards in reading, writing and maths by ethnicity
Ethnicity Expected standard Higher standard
All 65 11
Asian 69 13
Bangladeshi 70 13
Indian 77 19
Pakistani 62 9
Asian other 71 15
Black 64 9
Black African 67 10
Black Caribbean 56 6
Black other 60 7
Chinese 80 28
Mixed 66 12
Mixed White/Asian 73 17
Mixed White/Black African 67 11
Mixed White/Black Caribbean 59 7
Mixed other 68 14
White 64 10
White British 65 10
White Irish 73 16
Gypsy/Roma 19 1
Irish Traveller 26 1
White other 63 11
Other 61 10
Unknown 49 8

Download table data for ‘By ethnicity’ (CSV) Source data for ‘By ethnicity’ (CSV)

Summary of Reading, writing and maths results for 10 to 11 year olds By ethnicity Summary

The data shows that in the 2018 to 2019 school year:

  • 65% of pupils met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths in year 6 (when they were 10 or 11 years old)
  • 11% met the higher standard
  • 80% of pupils from the Chinese ethnic group met the expected standard and 28% met the higher standard, the highest percentages out of all ethnic groups
  • 19% of Gypsy and Roma pupils met the expected standard, the lowest percentage out of all ethnic groups
  • 1% of Gypsy and Roma pupils and White Irish Traveller pupils met the higher standard, the lowest percentage out of all ethnic groups

3. By ethnicity and gender

Percentage of pupils meeting the expected and higher standards in reading, writing and maths by ethnicity and gender
Boys Girls
Ethnicity Boys Expected standard Boys Higher standard Girls Expected standard Girls Higher standard
All 60 9 70 13
Asian 65 11 74 16
Bangladeshi 66 11 75 15
Indian 72 16 81 23
Pakistani 58 7 67 10
Asian other 67 13 76 18
Black 58 7 70 11
Black African 61 8 73 13
Black Caribbean 49 4 64 7
Black other 54 5 67 9
Chinese 77 23 83 33
Mixed 61 10 72 15
Mixed White/Asian 69 14 77 20
Mixed White/Black African 60 8 73 14
Mixed White/Black Caribbean 53 5 65 8
Mixed other 63 11 73 16
White 60 8 69 12
White British 60 8 70 12
White Irish 70 13 75 18
Gypsy/Roma 15 0 24 1
Irish Traveller 20 2 31 0
White other 58 8 68 13
Other 57 8 66 12

Download table data for ‘By ethnicity and gender’ (CSV) Source data for ‘By ethnicity and gender’ (CSV)

Summary of Reading, writing and maths results for 10 to 11 year olds By ethnicity and gender Summary

Data for the 2018 to 2019 school year shows that:

  • 70% of girls and 60% of boys met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths
  • 13% of girls and 9% of boys met the higher standard
  • in every ethnic group except White Irish Traveller, girls were more likely than boys to meet the expected and higher standards
  • girls from the Chinese ethnic group were the most likely to meet the expected standard (83%) and the higher standard (33%)
  • White Gypsy and Roma boys were the least likely to meet the expected standard (15%)
  • they were also least likely to meet the higher standard, along with White Irish Traveller girls (0%)
  • the smallest gap between girls and boys at the expected standard was found in the White Irish Traveller ethnic group, where 75% of girls and 70% of boys met the standard
  • the biggest gap between girls and boys at the expected standard was found among the Black Caribbean ethnic group, where 64% of girls and 49% of boys met the standard
  • the smallest gap between girls and boys at the higher standard was found among White Gypsy and Roma pupils, where 0% of boys and 1% of girls met the standard
  • the biggest gap between girls and boys at the higher standard was found in the Chinese ethnic group, where 33% of girls and 23% of boys met the standard

4. By ethnicity and area

Percentage and number of pupils meeting the expected standard in reading, writing and maths by ethnicity and area
All Asian Black Chinese Mixed White Other
Local authority All % All Pupils Asian % Asian Pupils Black % Black Pupils Chinese % Chinese Pupils Mixed % Mixed Pupils White % White Pupils Other % Other Pupils
Barking and Dagenham 66 2,296 75 574 69 754 90 9 59 183 58 740 52 25
Barnet 73 3,070 79 371 66 329 84 46 75 320 75 1,664 66 305
Barnsley 66 1,869 92 23 73 16 100 2 58 41 67 1,771 80 8
Bath and North East Somerset 67 1,220 86 24 64 7 60 3 66 62 67 1,109 56 5
Bedford 54 1,162 51 169 54 67 67 4 46 116 56 790 39 11
Bexley 70 2,341 83 225 75 454 96 54 71 167 66 1,388 68 39
Birmingham 62 10,080 65 3,940 60 1,266 72 63 61 855 60 3,315 62 523
Blackburn with Darwen 66 1,452 68 668 76 25 60 3 69 50 64 685 90 19
Blackpool 67 1,120 71 25 20 1 50 2 62 37 67 1,050 50 4
Bolton 65 2,549 65 630 52 130 100 6 67 105 66 1,624 55 41
Bournemouth, Christchurch and Poole 67 2,567 82 108 75 12 86 12 71 160 66 2,228 58 23
Bracknell Forest 65 921 78 61 63 30 80 8 71 72 63 739 86 6
Bradford 63 4,949 66 2,215 67 88 71 5 61 247 60 2,311 61 62
Brent 68 2,486 73 803 65 568 78 7 72 205 69 635 59 252
Brighton and Hove 67 1,802 74 63 62 36 74 14 73 205 66 1,420 55 31
Bristol, City of 65 3,141 63 243 56 305 78 18 59 262 67 2,268 59 29
Bromley 75 2,785 85 181 71 259 96 27 76 311 74 1,917 69 47
Buckinghamshire 66 4,163 67 707 57 94 84 21 67 327 67 2,955 67 28
Bury 65 1,539 61 222 43 25 83 10 60 70 67 1,192 52 16
Calderdale 65 1,789 67 320 44 11 89 8 66 73 65 1,363 67 10
Cambridgeshire 63 4,400 70 207 63 54 87 41 66 247 62 3,759 69 42
Camden 73 1,123 74 253 69 200 88 15 74 126 76 461 64 52
Central Bedfordshire 61 2,129 72 53 66 59 100 4 61 159 61 1,824 72 13
Cheshire East 66 2,804 70 60 56 9 50 7 70 123 66 2,585 58 11
Cheshire West and Chester 64 2,560 75 45 47 9 71 12 62 66 64 2,405 81 17
City of London 82 23 64 7 100 2 N/A* N/A* 100 4 100 9 50 1
Cornwall 61 3,589 60 9 33 1 78 7 62 89 61 3,436 59 13
County Durham 65 3,737 79 27 78 7 67 12 74 74 65 3,595 68 13
Coventry 62 2,738 65 627 63 334 67 14 63 184 61 1,522 56 40
Croydon 67 3,092 76 556 63 833 81 26 62 454 67 1,141 68 47
Cumbria 66 3,441 66 29 56 5 63 5 66 51 66 3,300 63 12
Darlington 66 851 68 21 71 5 0 0 70 21 66 791 64 7
Derby 61 2,010 64 402 60 78 100 10 61 152 60 1,309 53 39
Derbyshire 64 5,569 71 75 67 16 85 28 65 170 64 5,223 73 16
Devon 64 5,021 73 45 73 8 74 17 64 125 63 4,758 55 29
Doncaster 61 2,274 66 72 65 36 81 17 58 64 60 2,066 59 13
Dorset 61 2,384 70 19 42 5 67 8 60 73 61 2,267 67 2
Dudley 59 2,285 64 262 47 44 71 10 53 138 59 1,779 51 42
Ealing 71 3,085 73 912 65 445 94 17 75 270 73 962 68 448
East Riding of Yorkshire 65 2,360 82 14 57 4 50 1 67 52 64 2,261 67 12
East Sussex 63 3,450 70 81 61 25 79 11 67 215 62 3,070 44 14
Enfield 67 3,099 78 300 65 758 79 23 71 344 64 1,449 70 174
Essex 66 11,023 83 373 75 390 93 50 71 644 65 9,354 73 96
Gateshead 68 1,431 74 34 68 25 89 8 76 29 68 1,304 67 22
Gloucestershire 65 4,471 76 156 59 65 76 13 70 236 65 3,943 50 11
Greenwich 73 2,454 80 227 75 916 81 39 76 262 68 946 69 56
Hackney 66 1,711 70 219 62 585 82 9 71 190 65 586 73 111
Halton 60 959 71 5 100 1 N/A* N/A* 48 16 60 932 0 0
Hammersmith and Fulham 73 968 76 61 66 247 100 3 65 120 79 404 76 113
Hampshire 68 10,057 78 370 71 131 77 41 73 427 67 8,980 75 72
Haringey 66 2,021 74 140 60 478 77 23 68 233 69 1,030 56 104
Harrow 74 2,164 77 1,080 67 188 100 8 70 179 73 599 68 83
Hartlepool 68 799 63 15 33 1 89 8 80 12 68 758 40 2
Havering 72 2,159 80 197 73 268 67 6 72 152 70 1,495 70 14
Herefordshire, County of 69 1,305 90 9 71 5 67 2 73 44 69 1,237 71 5
Hertfordshire 67 9,567 71 871 62 403 76 52 68 690 67 7,383 63 107
Hillingdon 69 2,678 75 811 64 282 100 6 69 320 66 1,010 66 211
Hounslow 70 2,302 78 840 60 239 89 16 67 195 65 722 70 263
Isle of Wight 59 758 70 7 67 2 80 4 64 32 59 710 100 1
Isles of Scilly 47 9 N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* 44 8 N/A* N/A*
Islington 70 1,327 70 106 64 312 100 10 71 218 72 599 69 68
Kensington and Chelsea 77 731 71 30 75 138 67 2 81 152 80 276 71 116
Kent 68 12,189 82 596 77 403 94 48 70 687 67 10,247 68 108
Kingston upon Hull, City of 68 2,183 87 46 63 41 100 5 71 83 68 1,953 66 49
Kingston upon Thames 70 1,325 76 252 69 25 73 22 72 155 67 765 69 91
Kirklees 62 3,452 62 939 51 53 75 12 63 230 63 2,177 38 19
Knowsley 63 1,150 87 33 67 8 50 1 56 22 63 1,074 67 6
Lambeth 71 2,153 82 128 67 896 82 14 74 311 74 684 69 105
Lancashire 64 9,007 61 983 65 37 83 34 67 320 64 7,559 58 37
Leeds 62 5,764 60 665 55 424 77 40 60 376 63 4,135 49 90
Leicester 63 2,977 68 1,375 68 325 71 12 61 203 56 970 65 70
Leicestershire 67 5,115 76 439 71 65 79 22 69 261 66 4,278 63 19
Lewisham 68 2,351 77 158 63 859 79 37 70 389 72 809 62 69
Lincludingolnshire 61 5,015 86 75 67 28 76 19 67 166 60 4,658 69 25
Liverpool 62 3,236 70 165 61 152 80 63 60 178 62 2,562 51 108
Luton 61 1,986 61 939 59 204 89 8 65 180 60 604 67 34
Manchester 61 4,140 61 932 65 787 80 51 62 355 60 1,699 58 286
Medway 64 2,153 75 140 73 179 71 5 62 141 62 1,648 79 27
Merton 69 1,594 76 372 60 207 93 14 63 146 70 790 76 55
Middlesbrough 64 1,184 67 132 72 13 N/A* N/A* 60 67 64 936 68 32
Milton Keynes 66 2,478 78 377 63 337 88 23 68 213 64 1,454 80 24
Newcastle upon Tyne 66 1,962 72 294 65 124 81 29 64 87 65 1,371 61 49
Newham 76 3,605 79 1,707 74 823 90 18 77 239 71 588 72 203
Norfolk 60 5,497 78 111 56 46 71 27 61 196 59 5,026 59 47
North East Lincludingolnshire 65 1,254 67 12 43 3 100 1 74 43 65 1,172 76 16
North Lincludingolnshire 66 1,286 63 48 58 7 100 3 62 21 66 1,186 71 10
North Somerset 65 1,559 76 25 67 8 88 7 73 67 64 1,443 75 3
North Tyneside 67 1,633 71 41 58 11 88 15 75 57 66 1,498 75 6
North Yorkshire 63 4,018 70 59 39 12 90 9 63 109 63 3,785 64 16
Northamptonshire 61 5,782 72 322 61 325 85 28 57 298 61 4,730 59 41
Northumberland 66 2,367 81 46 40 2 100 7 70 46 66 2,254 58 7
Nottingham 63 2,272 71 413 65 287 67 8 67 323 61 1,169 59 62
Nottinghamshire 65 6,034 71 204 58 64 69 18 68 285 65 5,384 56 33
Oldham 63 2,185 61 711 65 85 69 9 65 117 64 1,240 41 11
Oxfordshire 65 4,814 60 280 56 118 75 15 63 327 66 3,952 56 56
Peterborough 56 1,675 55 310 58 78 75 6 57 108 55 1,128 64 23
Plymouth 64 1,899 78 21 71 17 100 10 68 61 64 1,754 53 21
Portsmouth 58 1,288 68 82 61 46 56 5 72 86 56 1,027 63 27
Reading 63 1,194 71 268 59 113 82 9 63 135 62 636 67 16
Redbridge 73 2,987 77 1,679 66 308 100 21 72 222 69 684 76 41
Redcar and Cleveland 70 1,154 70 7 80 4 100 1 72 36 71 1,097 14 1
Richmond upon Thames 81 1,874 78 163 50 29 71 17 77 176 83 1,426 78 42
Rochdale 60 1,803 60 472 54 68 83 10 57 66 61 1,160 57 21
Rotherham 59 2,007 51 134 65 43 75 9 51 56 60 1,735 82 23
Rutland 67 266 80 4 33 2 N/A* N/A* 83 10 67 246 50 2
Salford 65 1,948 75 77 71 122 100 1 68 162 65 1,517 54 53
Sandwell 62 2,955 67 939 59 288 75 18 60 266 60 1,358 62 71
Sefton 63 1,864 63 19 64 9 71 5 70 54 63 1,762 46 6
Sheffield 64 4,036 65 506 61 233 87 41 62 300 64 2,794 64 141
Shropshire 65 2,010 75 18 29 2 75 3 65 60 66 1,913 75 3
Slough 69 1,630 79 892 65 137 67 2 67 142 55 378 75 69
Solihull 69 1,806 76 260 72 41 97 29 63 139 67 1,291 78 25
Somerset 61 3,593 71 57 69 11 85 11 62 110 61 3,371 39 7
South Gloucestershire 67 2,203 75 78 64 29 82 9 74 125 66 1,932 69 18
South Tyneside 66 1,106 72 41 80 8 67 2 67 29 66 1,019 56 5
Southampton 64 1,788 66 244 73 66 75 12 66 116 62 1,310 71 36
Southend-on-Sea 68 1,502 84 118 70 45 83 19 67 98 67 1,195 75 12
Southwark 68 2,268 72 129 65 979 77 23 69 259 72 664 68 173
St. Helens 66 1,450 85 17 50 6 70 7 60 26 66 1,388 50 4
Staffordshire 65 6,360 63 280 52 40 76 28 60 212 65 5,737 70 32
Stockport 66 2,274 69 174 64 29 77 17 56 102 67 1,924 56 18
Stockton-on-Tees 71 1,773 74 101 78 21 57 4 79 53 70 1,586 57 4
Stoke-on-Trent 60 1,994 63 316 65 84 83 10 65 104 59 1,450 52 29
Suffolk 62 4,939 71 104 60 52 75 3 64 298 62 4,372 58 43
Sunderland 67 2,170 76 100 82 23 69 9 75 41 66 1,991 33 1
Surrey 70 8,678 75 655 63 146 86 60 72 560 69 7,081 68 90
Sutton 73 1,743 83 353 73 123 88 36 73 173 69 1,013 71 24
Swindon 62 1,814 69 238 63 57 67 10 64 115 61 1,364 52 12
Tameside 63 1,878 68 213 64 54 92 12 62 88 63 1,486 50 12
Telford and Wrekin 65 1,485 66 99 60 52 85 11 75 88 64 1,222 80 4
Thurrock 70 1,702 81 110 79 314 75 12 80 114 67 1,121 65 17
Torbay 66 956 80 20 100 1 75 3 64 27 66 892 64 7
Tower Hamlets 72 2,404 74 1,605 68 227 91 10 69 147 69 317 80 87
Trafford 77 2,328 83 371 68 93 85 53 76 177 77 1,550 78 63
Wakefield 64 2,566 55 91 66 37 77 17 64 79 64 2,325 54 14
Walsall 61 2,325 68 644 58 113 71 10 59 138 59 1,385 45 23
Waltham Forest 72 2,386 74 642 67 429 90 26 75 298 72 887 68 89
Wandsworth 70 1,691 71 315 62 344 90 9 67 200 76 745 67 60
Warrington 73 1,892 74 65 70 16 100 6 86 65 72 1,721 50 10
Warwickshire 66 4,191 77 294 59 47 91 20 70 222 65 3,554 77 23
West Berkshire 64 1,256 69 37 57 13 100 6 65 68 64 1,117 60 6
West Sussex 63 5,789 68 295 62 78 73 16 65 298 62 5,013 65 34
Westminster 70 1,004 69 132 69 176 92 11 72 107 74 278 68 291
Wigan 67 2,542 72 31 54 31 50 3 65 64 67 2,388 58 22
Wiltshire 64 3,441 82 54 58 52 88 14 74 140 64 3,126 63 30
Windsor and Maidenhead 67 1,068 63 160 36 8 100 6 67 93 69 774 62 13
Wirral 60 2,262 79 71 56 10 75 15 67 66 60 2,085 22 2
Wokingham 74 1,582 82 252 87 54 100 14 77 129 71 1,105 72 13
Wolverhampton 64 2,154 69 535 66 259 88 7 61 242 63 1,071 62 29
Worcestershire 63 3,845 63 158 76 22 80 8 61 148 63 3,465 67 16
York 68 1,355 73 30 86 6 100 4 61 37 68 1,260 73 8

Download table data for ‘By ethnicity and area’ (CSV) Source data for ‘By ethnicity and area’ (CSV)

Summary of Reading, writing and maths results for 10 to 11 year olds By ethnicity and area Summary

Data for the 2018 to 2019 school year shows that:

  • out of all local authorities, White pupils were most likely to meet the expected standard in Richmond upon Thames (83%) and least likely to in Peterborough and Slough (55%) – this doesn't include City of London and Isles of Scilly which only have one school each, and whose results need to be treated with caution
  • figures for other ethnic groups are based on small numbers of pupils, so reliable generalisations can't be made

5. By ethnicity and eligibility for free school meals

Percentage of pupils meeting the expected standard in reading, writing and maths by ethnicity and free school meals
Ethnicity FSM Non-FSM
% %
All 47 68
Asian 58 71
Bangladeshi 66 71
Indian 62 78
Pakistani 55 64
Asian other 58 74
Black 57 67
Black African 60 69
Black Caribbean 48 60
Black other 54 63
Chinese 75 80
Mixed 51 71
Mixed White/Asian 53 77
Mixed White/Black African 53 71
Mixed White/Black Caribbean 47 64
Mixed other 52 72
White 44 68
White British 44 69
White Irish 47 78
Gypsy/Roma 17 21
Irish Traveller 23 32
White other 49 64
Other 51 65

Download table data for ‘By ethnicity and eligibility for free school meals’ (CSV) Source data for ‘By ethnicity and eligibility for free school meals’ (CSV)

Summary of Reading, writing and maths results for 10 to 11 year olds By ethnicity and eligibility for free school meals Summary

Eligibility for free school meals (FSM) in England is used as an indicator of deprivation.

The data for FSM-eligible pupils shows that:

  • 47% met the expected standard in reading, writing and maths, compared with 68% of non-FSM pupils
  • pupils from the Chinese ethnic group were most likely out of all ethnic groups to meet the expected standard (at 75%)
  • White Gypsy and Roma pupils were least likely out of all ethnic groups to meet the expected standard (at 17%)
  • in every ethnic group, they were less likely to meet the expected standard than non-FSM pupils

6. Methodology

The key stage 2 datasets combine information from the following 2 data sources:

  • key stage 1 results
  • school census records

Key stage 2 data from the Standard Testing Agency is matched to school census records to identify pupils’ ethnicities and free school meal eligibility.

Only pupils with a valid outcome are included in the calculations for that subject.

Valid results are:

  • achieved the expected standard
  • not achieved the expected standard
  • absent
  • working below the standard of the test
  • unable to access the test

Some data is broken down by pupils' eligibility for free school meals (FSM). To be eligible, families must:

  • have applied for FSM at the time of the school census in January
  • be receiving a qualifying benefit like Jobseeker’s Allowance

FSM eligibility is used as an indicator of disadvantage. However, not all eligible parents apply for FSM and some families who do not reach the eligibility threshold may still be experiencing deprivation.

In the 2018 to 2019 school year, 17% of pupils in year 6 (the final year of key stage 2) were eligible for free school meals.

Rounding

Percentages given in charts, tables and downloads are rounded to the nearest whole number.

Related publications

Schools, pupils and their characteristics: January 2019.

Quality and methodology information

7. Data sources

Source

Type of data

Administrative data

Type of statistic

National Statistics

Publisher

Department for Education

Publication frequency

Yearly

Purpose of data source

The main purpose is to measure schools' and pupils' progress and performance from key stage 1 to key stage 2, in order to monitor and improve standards and inform parental choice when applying to local schools.

8. Download the data

KS2 reading, writing and maths -- National - Spreadsheet (csv) 97 KB

This file contains the following: measure, ethnicity, ethnicity_type, time, time_type, geography, geography_type_geography_code, gender, age, FSM, value, value_type, denominator, numerator

KS2 reading, writing and maths -- Local authority - Spreadsheet (csv) 839 KB

This file contains the following: measure, ethnicity, ethnicity_type, time, time_type, geography, geography_type_geography_code, gender, age, value, value_type, denominator, numerator