GCSE results (‘Attainment 8’) for children aged 14 to 16 (key stage 4)

Published

This page corrects mistakes in a previous version. See details.

1. Main facts and figures

  • in 2016/17, there were 527,859 pupils at the end of key stage 4 in state-funded schools, and ethnicity was known for 521,048 (99%) of them
  • of these, 77% were White, 10% were Asian, 5% were Black, 5% were Mixed, 1.6% came from the Other ethnic group and 0.4% were Chinese
  • on average, pupils from the Chinese, Asian and Mixed ethnic groups scored higher than the national average for Attainment 8 (which measures how children perform in 8 GCSE-level qualifications)
  • White pupils and Black pupils scored below the national average for Attainment 8
  • pupils from the Gypsy/Roma and Irish Traveller ethnic groups had the lowest average score for Attainment 8

Incorrect data

Between 9 October 2018 and 16 April 2019, the statistics in the tables and download file on this page were incorrect. They have now been updated.

Things you need to know

Please be aware that some of the statistics quoted here for some ethnic groups are based on very small numbers of pupils (for example, only 131 Chinese children were eligible for free school meals in 2016/17) and are highly variable over time.

Because the results for Chinese pupils are based on a very small number, the average score for this group can be heavily influenced by one pupil either performing exceptionally, or getting a very low score.

Attainment is lower for children from a Traveller of Irish Heritage background – however, there were only 118 pupils from this ethnic group at the end of key stage 4 in 2016/17. This was a much smaller number than for other ethnic groups (for example, there were 21,323 Pakistani pupils at the end of key stage 4). Therefore, data comparisons between Traveller of Irish Heritage pupils and other ethnic groups may be unreliable.

The ethnicity of 1.3% of pupils (6,811) is not known. This includes pupils whose ethnicity was not surveyed, pupils who refused to be surveyed, and pupils whose ethnicity could not be determined.

The Department of Education (DfE) has excluded, or ‘suppressed’, very small numbers (for example, values of 1 or 2, a percentage based on 1 or 2 pupils who achieved, or 0, 1 or 2 pupils who did not achieve a particular level).

This is because, where the size of the ethnic group population is small enough that an individual’s identity could be revealed, information is suppressed to preserve confidentiality. This is consistent with DfE’s statistical policy statement on confidentiality.

The Attainment 8 measure only includes qualifications which count towards the secondary performance tables.

Schools that offer unapproved qualifications, such as unregulated international GCSEs, will not have these qualifications counted in the performance tables. Achievements in these qualifications by pupils at such schools are not reflected in this data.

This data therefore represents the performance of schools and pupils in qualifications which count in the performance tables, rather than all qualifications taken by pupils. The difference between the figures for all schools and state-funded mainstream schools is mostly due to the impact of the unregulated international GCSEs taken in independent schools.

Data for some Muslim, Sikh and Hindu schools was not included in the statistics for faith schools, because the small numbers of pupils make it impossible to draw meaningful conclusions about their attainment. Data for faith schools is also only provided for pupils in state-funded mainstream schools.

Schools can ask for a pupil to be removed from their performance results if the pupil:

  • arrived recently from overseas and their first language isn’t English
  • was admitted following a permanent exclusion from another school
  • is not at the end of key stage 4
  • has left England to live abroad
  • has died

Pupils removed from a school’s performance results may still be included in the national figures.

What the data measures

This data measures how children perform in 8 GCSE-level qualifications, referred to by the Department for Education (DfE) as ‘Attainment 8’.

Attainment 8 is one of two ways of measuring how well children do in key stage 4, brought in by DfE in 2016. The other is Progress 8.

The 8 subjects which make up Attainment 8 include English and Maths, which are both ‘double-weighted’, meaning they are given twice the importance of other subjects.

Of the remaining 6 subjects, 3 must come from qualifications that count towards the English Baccalaureate (EBacc), and 3 can be either EBacc subjects, GCSE subjects, or technical qualifications from a list approved by the DfE.

Each individual grade a pupil achieves is assigned a point score, which is then used to calculate their total Attainment 8 score.

A pupil’s Attainment 8 score is calculated by adding up the points for their 8 subjects (with England and Maths counted twice), and dividing by 10. A school's Attainment 8 score is the average of all of its eligible pupils’ scores.

To calculate the national average for Attainment 8, DfE adds together all the Attainment 8 scores given to individual children, and divides them by the total number of pupils at the end of key stage 4.

The data covers the academic year 2016/17 (September 2016 to July 2017).

Key stage 4 covers school years 10 and 11, when children are aged 14 to 16.

The ethnic categories used in this data

This data uses categories from the Department for Education’s school census, which is broadly based on the 2001 national Census, with 3 exceptions:

  • Traveller of Irish Heritage and Gypsy/Roma children have been separated into 2 categories
  • Sri Lankan has been added to the Asian/Asian British group but is not reported separately
  • Chinese pupils have been assigned a separate category

These changes were made after consultations with local authorities and lobby groups.

The categories in the school census are as follows:

White:

  • White British
  • White Irish
  • Traveller of Irish Heritage
  • Gypsy/Roma
  • Other White

Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups:

  • White and Black Caribbean
  • White and Black African
  • White and Asian
  • Other Mixed background

Asian/Asian British:

  • Indian
  • Pakistani
  • Bangladeshi
  • Sri Lankan
  • Other Asian background

Black/African/Caribbean/Black British:

  • Black African
  • Black Caribbean
  • Other Black background
  • Chinese
  • Other ethnic group

Information is provided for both detailed and broad ethnic groups where possible and when the data is available.

The 6 broad categories used are as follows:

  • Asian/Asian British
  • Black/African/Caribbean/Black British
  • Chinese
  • Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups
  • White
  • Other ethnic group

However, local authority data is only provided for 5 broad ethnic groups. Information about the specific ethnic categories is excluded to preserve confidentiality and ensure individuals cannot be identified. Information about the Other ethnic group is not given because DfE does not publish data for this group at the local authority level.

The 5 broad categories are as follows:

  • Asian/Asian British
  • Black/African/Caribbean/Black British
  • Chinese
  • Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups
  • White

2. By ethnicity

Attainment 8 scores by ethnicity
Ethnicity Score Pupils
Asian 49.8 52,787
Bangladeshi 49.9 8,874
Indian 55.4 13,968
Pakistani 45.0 21,323
Asian other 52.3 8,622
Black 44.8 27,922
Black African 46.9 17,466
Black Caribbean 40.5 7,097
Black other 42.6 3,359
Chinese 62.6 2,073
Mixed 47.0 23,483
Mixed White/Asian 51.8 5,147
Mixed White/Black African 47.0 2,714
Mixed White/Black Caribbean 41.3 7,038
Mixed other 48.8 8,584
White 45.9 406,342
White British 45.9 378,108
White Irish 51.6 1,676
Gypsy/Roma 18.0 1,073
Irish Traveller 23.8 118
White other 46.5 25,367
Other 46.8 8,441

Download table data (CSV) Source data (CSV)

Summary

This data shows that:

  • in 2016/17, the average Attainment 8 score for all pupils in state-funded schools in England was 46.3
  • out of the broad ethnic groups, those scoring above the national average for Attainment 8 were pupils from the Chinese ethnic group (62.6), Asian pupils (49.8) and those with Mixed ethnicity (47.0)
  • White pupils (45.9) and Black pupils (44.8) had average Attainment 8 scores lower than the national average
  • out of the specific ethnic groups, the pupils with the highest scores on average were in the Chinese (62.6) and Indian (55.4) ethnic groups, and those with the lowest were in the Gypsy/Roma (18.0) and Traveller of Irish Heritage (23.8) ethnic groups

3. By ethnicity and eligibility for free school meals

Attainment 8 scores by ethnicity groups and eligibility for free school meals
FSM Non-FSM
Ethnicity Score Pupils Score Pupils
All 35.0 69,261 48.0 458,598
Asian 43.3 8,824 51.1 43,963
Bangladeshi 46.3 2,438 51.3 6,436
Indian 46.5 1,016 56.1 12,952
Pakistani 40.8 4,302 46.1 17,021
Asian other 43.5 1,068 53.6 7,554
Black 39.7 6,076 46.1 21,846
Black African 42.1 3,777 48.2 13,689
Black Caribbean 35.2 1,574 42.0 5,523
Black other 37.2 725 44.2 2,634
Chinese 58.0 131 62.9 1,942
Mixed 36.7 4,297 49.3 19,186
Mixed White/Asian 37.6 723 54.1 4,424
Mixed White/Black African 39.8 541 48.8 2,173
Mixed White/Black Caribbean 32.7 1,598 43.8 5,440
Mixed other 39.6 1,435 50.7 7,149
White 32.3 46,985 47.7 359,357
White British 32.1 44,106 47.8 334,002
White Irish 32.6 194 54.1 1,482
Gypsy/Roma 17.9 325 18.0 748
Irish Traveller 19.4 66 29.3 52
White other 39.8 2,294 47.1 23,073
Other 42.4 2,012 48.2 6,429
Unknown 32.4 936 41.1 5,875

Download table data (CSV) Source data (CSV)

Summary

Eligibility for free school meals (FSM) is used as an indicator of deprivation by the Department for Education. For more about who qualifies for FSM, see the ’Methodology’ section.

This data shows that:

  • 13% of pupils (69,261 children) at the end of key stage 4 were eligible for free school meals (FSM) in 2016/17
  • 24% of pupils from the Other ethnic background, 22% of Black pupils, 18% of pupils with Mixed ethnicity, 17% of Asian pupils, 12% of White pupils and 6% of pupils from the Chinese ethnic group were eligible for FSM
  • pupils eligible for FSM had an average Attainment 8 score of 35.0, which is 13 points lower than the average for all other pupils
  • pupils eligible for FSM had lower average Attainment 8 scores in all ethnic groups except the Gypsy/Roma group, where there was little difference between those eligible and those not eligible
  • of pupils eligible for FSM, pupils from the Chinese ethnic group had the highest average Attainment 8 score (58.0), and White pupils had the lowest (32.3)
  • White Irish pupils saw the biggest gap between those eligible for FSM and other pupils, at around 22 points, with FSM-eligible pupils scoring an average of 32.6 and those not eligible scoring 54.1
  • please be aware that the statistics quoted here for some ethnic groups are based on very small numbers of pupils (for example, only 131 Chinese children were eligible for FSM in 2016/17) and are highly variable over time

4. By ethnicity and area

Attainment 8 scores by ethnicity and area
All Asian Black Chinese Mixed White
Local authority Score Pupils Score Pupils Score Pupils Score Pupils Score Pupils Score Pupils
Barking and Dagenham 46.7 2,185 53.0 428 47.4 601 48.0 3 45.6 124 43.3 970
Barnet 54.7 3,528 64.3 539 47.6 478 69.1 55 54.9 343 53.9 1,728
Barnsley 44.0 2,110 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 49.3 9 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 48.5 30 43.9 2,051
Bath and North East Somerset 47.5 2,001 56.3 33 37.0 22 55.8 5 44.5 72 47.7 1,838
Bedford 45.9 1,827 45.4 266 42.1 88 71.9 5 40.4 144 46.8 1,294
Bexley 49.0 3,141 60.4 203 54.9 567 60.6 48 50.6 185 45.8 2,086
Birmingham 46.1 12,127 47.2 4,710 43.5 1,453 61.6 55 45.9 923 45.6 4,326
Blackburn with Darwen 46.4 1,746 50.3 764 39.3 20 51.6 4 44.5 54 43.3 890
Blackpool 38.8 1,190 53.6 21 18.8 3 53.4 4 40.0 18 38.6 1,134
Bolton 43.7 3,263 48.6 659 40.6 145 62.1 6 43.3 86 42.5 2,313
Bournemouth 48.0 1,611 55.7 35 44.7 19 59.1 11 48.6 75 47.7 1,428
Bracknell Forest 46.3 1,119 51.1 52 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 42.9 46 46.2 989
Bradford 42.4 5,786 43.0 2,598 43.7 79 57.2 10 40.3 226 42.0 2,743
Brent 49.0 2,908 51.9 894 42.4 698 66.1 4 45.8 195 46.7 507
Brighton and Hove 46.8 2,197 49.2 60 45.5 43 69.7 6 46.3 164 46.6 1,847
Bristol, City of 44.0 3,236 46.8 229 39.4 326 52.2 12 44.8 244 44.3 2,376
Bromley 49.8 3,258 60.8 182 51.1 296 69.2 43 51.4 303 50.3 2,231
Buckinghamshire 52.9 5,599 53.7 979 47.9 171 69.9 27 52.7 305 52.8 4,016
Bury 46.0 2,120 46.9 262 35.8 35 57.7 11 46.2 82 46.0 1,697
Calderdale 48.2 2,475 49.1 359 46.4 26 67.8 7 45.7 69 48.1 1,997
Cambridgeshire 47.7 5,635 50.7 169 40.0 54 63.1 32 50.1 207 47.6 5,032
Camden 48.3 1,513 46.4 277 44.9 318 70.9 7 49.3 191 49.7 577
Central Bedfordshire 45.5 2,591 53.7 54 39.7 53 60.7 7 43.0 105 45.5 2,347
Cheshire East 48.9 3,582 53.9 56 47.7 12 67.8 12 48.9 89 48.8 3,378
Cheshire West and Chester 46.5 3,328 43.9 41 48.4 10 60.7 8 50.5 71 46.4 3,181
City of London N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A*
Cornwall 45.7 5,133 45.4 21 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 48.2 98 45.7 4,928
County Durham 44.6 4,608 51.1 28 45.2 5 70.6 12 50.0 46 44.8 4,459
Coventry 42.8 3,374 48.6 635 43.8 305 69.9 9 39.7 171 41.2 2,198
Croydon 45.0 3,579 51.5 462 43.0 1,031 64.5 10 47.2 503 45.6 1,338
Cumbria 46.3 4,915 52.2 21 49.3 10 63.6 17 53.7 62 46.3 4,652
Darlington 45.3 1,066 withheld to protect confidentiality 23 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 22 45.2 998
Derby 42.6 2,741 46.6 479 withheld to protect confidentiality 87 withheld to protect confidentiality 7 39.1 170 42.0 1,944
Derbyshire 45.6 7,249 44.0 54 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 48.7 133 45.5 6,965
Devon 46.5 6,704 55.8 32 25.2 5 51.8 21 51.5 96 46.4 6,265
Doncaster 43.6 2,996 51.0 86 50.7 41 68.1 11 43.0 69 43.2 2,757
Dorset 45.2 3,988 49.1 30 44.3 3 55.0 11 46.7 77 45.1 3,792
Dudley 43.7 3,484 43.2 318 43.2 90 61.4 7 43.5 190 43.9 2,820
Ealing 48.7 2,722 50.9 808 44.0 543 47.9 4 48.7 231 50.0 736
East Riding of Yorkshire 47.2 3,370 withheld to protect confidentiality 12 53.1 8 withheld to protect confidentiality 4 49.8 53 47.0 3,236
East Sussex 45.3 4,812 52.5 82 39.3 39 54.9 16 46.8 184 45.1 4,395
Enfield 46.2 3,487 56.5 277 44.2 854 67.6 9 47.7 315 45.2 1,747
Essex 46.7 14,378 61.2 348 50.3 398 65.4 57 48.7 556 46.0 12,778
Gateshead 46.8 1,909 52.1 45 40.1 10 60.9 7 58.7 26 46.3 1,784
Gloucestershire 48.4 6,165 56.0 162 40.7 77 60.7 17 48.4 215 48.3 5,633
Greenwich 45.9 2,166 50.5 188 46.2 637 59.3 19 45.7 216 44.6 1,008
Hackney 49.4 2,002 50.1 270 46.9 750 70.1 9 48.2 153 52.2 648
Halton 44.9 1,395 59.8 3 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 48.0 31 44.8 1,347
Hammersmith and Fulham 50.9 1,313 52.4 102 43.1 341 70.6 4 46.2 137 56.6 578
Hampshire 47.0 12,740 52.3 332 44.1 89 57.3 36 48.2 363 46.8 11,749
Haringey 46.5 2,127 49.0 139 42.1 581 59.8 7 47.0 211 48.6 1,024
Harrow 49.7 2,049 54.1 898 41.8 329 68.5 6 49.0 147 47.6 540
Hartlepool 44.0 976 withheld to protect confidentiality 23 45.6 4 N/A* 0 withheld to protect confidentiality 8 43.7 939
Havering 47.5 2,794 52.4 106 50.8 340 66.8 7 48.2 132 46.5 2,141
Herefordshire, County of 45.7 1,718 62.1 7 38.3 4 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 45.4 1,655
Hertfordshire 49.7 12,734 55.6 851 46.6 468 66.4 68 50.5 736 49.2 10,391
Hillingdon 47.1 3,075 53.1 659 43.9 350 35.4 4 48.6 324 44.4 1,482
Hounslow 48.0 2,641 54.2 746 46.4 353 71.3 7 48.3 184 47.9 958
Isle of Wight 40.1 1,251 54.5 5 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 45.7 30 39.9 1,196
Isles of Scilly 45.0 19 N/A* 0 N/A* 0 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 44.8 18
Islington 45.6 1,377 49.2 163 43.6 387 57.2 5 44.8 155 44.7 525
Kensington and Chelsea 55.0 739 55.4 18 50.1 126 68.3 5 54.5 112 56.9 302
Kent 46.3 15,407 57.6 566 52.7 345 68.1 65 51.1 615 45.4 13,538
Kingston upon Hull, City of 42.6 2,253 56.0 43 49.2 32 67.7 5 45.5 41 42.5 2,018
Kingston upon Thames 55.5 1,517 62.0 333 45.5 40 79.6 22 54.9 128 53.0 915
Kirklees 45.3 4,383 45.0 1,233 40.9 92 67.1 8 39.3 221 46.0 2,794
Knowsley 37.6 978 38.4 5 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 40.5 17 37.5 944
Lambeth 44.3 1,949 48.8 76 41.9 990 62.4 23 43.0 244 47.6 504
Lancashire 45.7 12,078 46.8 1,238 39.7 29 64.4 32 47.2 273 45.4 10,415
Leeds 45.1 7,427 43.9 921 45.0 417 61.3 39 43.9 362 46.1 5,420
Leicester 42.8 3,310 47.3 1,526 41.0 357 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 38.1 1,139
Leicestershire 45.7 6,867 54.9 497 43.9 55 61.8 24 44.2 236 44.9 5,987
Lewisham 44.2 2,247 44.2 132 42.3 952 58.4 34 45.8 285 45.2 675
Lincolnshire 46.4 7,549 61.4 93 45.4 43 62.8 21 50.7 165 46.0 7,160
Liverpool 44.2 4,467 53.9 131 43.7 158 60.7 48 46.3 192 43.5 3,768
Luton 43.5 2,433 46.5 1,040 42.3 267 65.4 4 39.6 150 41.4 780
Manchester 43.4 4,574 48.4 1,056 43.2 741 55.4 37 42.8 328 40.5 2,120
Medway 45.7 2,910 57.0 134 51.5 159 63.4 10 48.4 139 44.4 2,415
Merton 50.2 1,420 52.7 230 46.8 280 56.6 7 51.7 177 50.5 672
Middlesbrough 43.2 1,386 52.7 182 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 49 42.5 1,061
Milton Keynes 44.9 2,841 49.5 248 44.6 352 63.2 15 44.3 167 44.3 1,985
Newcastle upon Tyne 43.3 2,362 49.1 238 40.4 77 54.4 23 47.4 60 42.6 1,888
Newham 48.4 3,523 52.4 1,618 45.3 863 63.9 14 44.6 213 43.2 597
Norfolk 45.0 7,864 54.3 72 44.3 72 61.8 32 48.5 167 44.8 7,418
North East Lincolnshire 43.8 1,592 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 47.5 21 44.1 1,431
North Lincolnshire 44.8 1,749 48.9 66 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 52.4 29 44.5 1,630
North Somerset 46.0 2,086 54.9 21 45.5 12 46.3 5 50.8 41 45.8 1,996
North Tyneside 47.0 1,959 49.6 34 33.9 9 60.7 17 53.3 33 46.8 1,845
North Yorkshire 49.6 5,904 58.5 94 49.4 16 55.0 12 51.8 99 49.4 5,632
Northamptonshire 44.7 7,287 50.5 304 45.4 303 67.8 18 44.5 349 44.3 6,228
Northumberland 44.7 3,145 46.8 39 49.8 4 56.3 6 50.6 40 44.6 3,046
Nottingham 40.3 2,505 46.4 436 40.6 277 57.0 6 39.1 249 38.5 1,453
Nottinghamshire 47.8 7,511 55.7 166 45.5 112 64.7 24 49.2 277 47.6 6,821
Oldham 43.6 2,918 44.3 869 43.2 45 59.7 8 41.7 115 43.4 1,802
Oxfordshire 47.6 5,945 46.3 310 45.2 114 60.3 28 46.2 320 47.7 5,077
Peterborough 42.1 2,237 44.1 388 43.6 73 62.9 8 41.0 115 41.6 1,608
Plymouth 44.5 2,515 52.6 22 40.9 18 64.4 5 44.6 40 44.3 2,371
Poole 51.5 1,341 60.2 31 49.0 12 62.4 4 55.8 49 51.2 1,222
Portsmouth 42.3 1,627 56.2 82 48.0 43 69.7 5 46.8 49 41.0 1,412
Reading 49.6 1,134 56.5 222 41.7 105 80.8 16 46.6 105 48.9 642
Redbridge 51.2 3,458 55.3 1,792 44.8 463 59.7 22 48.8 243 46.9 856
Redcar and Cleveland 44.0 1,584 52.3 17 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 50.2 22 44.1 1,480
Richmond upon Thames 52.7 1,374 51.8 90 39.2 61 62.3 8 54.0 147 53.4 1,018
Rochdale 42.5 2,238 44.0 563 40.8 83 58.5 3 38.5 77 42.3 1,493
Rotherham 45.0 3,028 44.7 213 49.1 43 44.7 5 47.8 65 44.9 2,672
Rutland 52.2 473 62.1 4 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 52.1 458
Salford 41.7 2,057 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 97 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 44.6 94 41.2 1,775
Sandwell 42.4 3,564 44.8 993 40.2 309 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 41.6 1,901
Sefton 44.9 3,013 54.2 26 41.5 17 58.4 9 45.8 43 45.5 2,833
Sheffield 44.6 5,090 46.9 501 42.9 210 57.1 16 41.7 272 44.6 3,879
Shropshire 46.4 2,777 49.6 34 55.7 5 62.0 6 46.9 45 46.3 2,647
Slough 52.2 1,648 55.3 839 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 50.1 122 47.7 456
Solihull 47.1 2,917 52.6 331 45.9 63 68.1 10 45.3 163 46.8 2,217
Somerset 45.7 4,837 56.3 45 39.8 18 72.7 9 47.8 90 45.6 4,648
South Gloucestershire 43.7 2,586 49.3 72 45.2 36 62.7 5 42.8 107 43.6 2,337
South Tyneside 43.0 1,500 48.2 53 44.9 4 46.3 3 47.2 20 43.0 1,388
Southampton 44.2 1,845 50.9 191 43.0 42 68.6 5 47.3 99 43.1 1,489
Southend-on-Sea 50.4 2,103 59.9 127 60.4 128 66.1 22 53.1 87 48.7 1,715
Southwark 50.5 2,328 54.2 142 48.6 1,056 57.3 22 48.8 264 52.2 656
St. Helens 43.8 1,693 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 58.5 5 47.1 34 44.4 1,566
Staffordshire 44.9 8,414 47.1 265 41.5 40 59.0 15 43.3 186 44.8 7,861
Stockport 48.2 2,649 51.1 173 47.1 41 53.8 16 48.1 105 47.9 2,276
Stockton-on-Tees 45.6 1,913 48.0 99 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 29 45.4 1,758
Stoke-on-Trent 43.3 2,198 44.9 322 46.0 36 59.8 8 42.9 84 43.0 1,706
Suffolk 44.7 6,718 52.4 93 38.0 50 63.0 7 43.6 251 44.7 6,201
Sunderland 43.8 2,769 50.0 121 48.7 11 59.8 3 41.0 26 43.5 2,590
Surrey 50.0 10,067 54.0 592 48.5 197 67.1 45 51.8 467 49.5 8,621
Sutton 56.2 2,759 68.7 551 53.5 226 76.4 45 58.7 228 51.4 1,644
Swindon 42.9 2,038 43.4 201 48.7 39 59.8 5 44.8 79 42.6 1,667
Tameside 44.8 2,407 48.9 283 41.2 37 64.8 5 45.7 68 44.2 1,995
Telford and Wrekin 46.4 1,835 48.6 100 47.3 43 64.0 10 47.6 74 46.0 1,596
Thurrock 44.4 1,633 53.7 49 48.9 180 70.9 10 45.9 83 43.2 1,276
Torbay 49.3 1,316 withheld to protect confidentiality 13 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 49.7 1,186
Tower Hamlets 47.2 2,623 49.9 1,769 46.7 306 51.0 6 44.5 113 40.7 300
Trafford 55.6 2,715 60.4 327 53.7 80 69.9 44 54.9 157 54.8 2,042
Wakefield 45.5 3,402 49.3 89 41.2 41 59.1 8 45.1 61 45.4 3,161
Walsall 43.2 3,169 47.6 649 43.6 132 73.0 3 42.2 159 41.9 2,191
Waltham Forest 45.5 2,486 47.9 681 42.0 567 51.1 19 44.2 235 46.0 883
Wandsworth 49.5 1,695 49.4 353 45.0 464 65.7 12 51.3 191 52.9 556
Warrington 47.0 2,277 55.6 42 40.4 5 51.6 9 47.5 44 47.0 2,126
Warwickshire 49.0 5,489 56.9 278 46.3 43 70.6 11 50.3 180 48.5 4,875
West Berkshire 47.4 1,790 53.5 46 40.4 29 69.9 6 47.9 76 48.0 1,587
West Sussex 46.8 7,782 49.5 329 39.6 97 53.0 18 48.8 252 46.7 7,007
Westminster 52.6 1,535 54.7 186 49.6 351 63.5 18 53.4 158 56.2 385
Wigan 46.2 3,337 48.8 34 48.3 25 61.7 9 49.0 55 46.1 3,172
Wiltshire 46.6 4,732 60.4 68 44.0 32 60.2 17 52.9 113 46.7 4,225
Windsor and Maidenhead 49.4 1,547 49.3 212 49.4 27 43.4 9 45.2 91 49.9 1,159
Wirral 48.1 3,349 61.1 62 50.4 12 60.0 22 54.4 68 47.7 3,158
Wokingham 51.7 1,642 53.8 182 46.1 59 69.2 7 49.7 89 51.7 1,270
Wolverhampton 45.0 2,505 52.1 601 44.5 244 46.9 11 40.0 246 43.0 1,362
Worcestershire 46.4 5,348 48.0 176 39.9 29 64.0 11 45.7 152 46.4 4,937
York 49.3 1,608 57.0 30 51.6 8 55.5 7 49.4 37 49.0 1,512

Download table data (CSV) Source data (CSV)

Summary

This data shows that:

  • in 2016/17, pupils in Sutton in London had the highest average Attainment 8 score (56.2) and those in Knowsley had the lowest (37.6)
  • the average score for Attainment 8 was lower in the Midlands and northern parts of the country than in the South of England and London
  • among White pupils, the highest average score (56.9) was in Kensington and Chelsea, and the lowest was in Knowsley (37.5)
  • among pupils with Mixed ethnicity, the highest average score was in Gateshead and Sutton (58.7) and the lowest was in Rochdale (38.5)
  • among Asian pupils, the highest average score was in Sutton in London (68.7) and the lowest was in Knowsley (38.4)
  • among Black pupils, the highest average score was in Southend-on-Sea (60.4) and the lowest was in Blackpool (18.8)
  • among pupils from the Chinese ethnic group, the highest average score was in Reading (80.8), and the lowest was in Hillingdon (35.4)
  • please be aware that the statistics quoted here for Attainment 8 achievement by local authority are based on small numbers of pupils and are highly variable over time

5. By ethnicity and gender

Attainment 8 scores by ethnicity and gender
All pupils Boys Girls
Ethnicity Score Pupils Score Pupils Score Pupils
All 46.3 527,859 43.7 268,527 49.0 259,332
Asian 49.8 52,787 47.3 27,070 52.4 25,717
Bangladeshi 49.9 8,874 47.5 4,349 52.3 4,525
Indian 55.4 13,968 53.1 7,294 57.9 6,674
Pakistani 45.0 21,323 42.6 10,903 47.6 10,420
Asian other 52.3 8,622 49.3 4,524 55.7 4,098
Black 44.8 27,922 41.4 13,919 48.1 14,003
Black African 46.9 17,466 43.7 8,703 50.1 8,763
Black Caribbean 40.5 7,097 36.9 3,530 44.0 3,567
Black other 42.6 3,359 39.2 1,686 46.2 1,673
Chinese 62.6 2,073 60.5 1,080 64.8 993
Mixed 47.0 23,483 44.3 11,749 49.7 11,734
Mixed White/Asian 51.8 5,147 49.3 2,602 54.3 2,545
Mixed White/Black African 47.0 2,714 44.1 1,340 49.9 1,374
Mixed White/Black Caribbean 41.3 7,038 38.0 3,471 44.4 3,567
Mixed other 48.8 8,584 46.3 4,336 51.4 4,248
White 45.9 406,342 43.3 206,635 48.6 199,707
White British 45.9 378,108 43.4 192,325 48.6 185,783
White Irish 51.6 1,676 50.3 846 52.9 830
Gypsy/Roma 18.0 1,073 16.8 560 19.3 513
Irish Traveller 23.8 118 18.0 54 28.7 64
White other 46.5 25,367 43.6 12,850 49.4 12,517
Other 46.8 8,441 44.1 4,471 49.9 3,970
Unknown 39.9 6,811 37.1 3,603 43.0 3,208

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Summary

This data shows that:

  • on average, Attainment 8 scores were higher for girls than boys in all ethnic groups – overall, girls achieved an average score of 49.0, compared with 43.7 for boys
  • girls from the Chinese ethnic group achieved the highest average score out of all ethnic groups and among boys and girls, at 64.8
  • boys from a Gypsy/Roma background had the lowest average score, at 16.8
  • the smallest difference in scores between girls and boys was found among pupils from a Gypsy/Roma background, where girls scored an average of 2.5 points more than boys
  • the largest difference in scores between girls and boys was found among pupils from Traveller of Irish Heritage background, where boys scored an average of 18.0 compared with 28.7 for girls (a difference of 10.7 points)

6. By ethnicity, gender and eligibility for free school meals

Attainment 8 scores by ethnicity, gender and eligibility for free school meals (FSM)
FSM Boys FSM Girls Non-FSM Boys Non-FSM Girls
Ethnicity Score Pupils Score Pupils Score Pupils Score Pupils
All 32.1 34,903 38.0 34,358 45.4 233,624 50.7 224,974
Asian 40.5 4,362 46.1 4,462 48.7 22,708 53.7 21,255
Bangladeshi 43.3 1,187 49.2 1,251 49.1 3,162 53.4 3,274
Indian 43.4 491 49.5 525 53.8 6,803 58.6 6,149
Pakistani 38.1 2,106 43.3 2,196 43.7 8,797 48.7 8,224
Asian other 40.8 578 46.7 490 50.5 3,946 57.0 3,608
Black 36.1 3,019 43.3 3,057 42.9 10,900 49.4 10,946
Black African 38.6 1,855 45.5 1,922 45.0 6,848 51.4 6,841
Black Caribbean 31.6 798 39.0 776 38.4 2,732 45.4 2,791
Black other 33.3 366 41.1 359 40.8 1,320 47.5 1,314
Chinese 55.5 69 60.9 62 60.9 1,011 65.0 931
Mixed 33.8 2,136 39.5 2,161 46.6 9,613 52.0 9,573
Mixed White/Asian 35.6 377 39.7 346 51.6 2,225 56.6 2,199
Mixed White/Black African 37.0 256 42.4 285 45.8 1,084 51.9 1,089
Mixed White/Black Caribbean 29.2 781 36.0 817 40.6 2,690 46.9 2,750
Mixed other 36.8 722 42.4 713 48.2 3,614 53.2 3,535
White 29.5 23,786 35.3 23,199 45.1 182,849 50.3 176,508
White British 29.2 22,338 35.0 21,768 45.2 169,987 50.4 164,015
White Irish 32.1 94 33.1 100 52.6 752 55.6 730
Gypsy/Roma 16.7 165 19.1 160 16.8 395 19.4 353
Irish Traveller 14.1 28 23.4 38 22.2 26 36.4 26
White other 37.0 1,161 42.6 1,133 44.2 11,689 50.1 11,384
Other 40.1 1,054 45.0 958 45.3 3,417 51.5 3,012
Unknown 30.3 477 34.6 459 38.1 3,126 44.4 2,749

Download table data (CSV) Source data (CSV)

Summary

Eligibility for free school meals (FSM) is used as an indicator of deprivation by the Department for Education. For more about who qualifies for FSM, see the ’Methodology’ section.

This data shows that:

  • overall, girls eligible for FSM scored an average of 5.9 points more in Attainment 8 than boys eligible for FSM; the gap among boys and girls not eligible for FSM was slightly smaller overall, at 5.3 points
  • overall, the gap in average score between FSM-eligible pupils and those not eligible for FSM was similar between boys and girls in every ethnic group
  • within the broad ethnic groups, FSM-eligible girls from the Chinese ethnic group had the highest average Attainment 8 score (60.9) out of all FSM-eligible pupils, and FSM-eligible White boys had the lowest (29.5)
  • among the specific ethnic groups, FSM-eligible boys from a Traveller of Irish Heritage background had the lowest average score (14.1) out of all ethnic groups and among boys and girls; Chinese girls who were not eligible for FSM had the highest average score (65.0)
  • pupils from the Traveller of Irish Heritage ethnic group not eligible for FSM showed the biggest difference in average score between girls and boys, with girls scoring an average of 14 points more (36.4 and 22.2 respectively)
  • the smallest difference in average score between girls and boys was found among White Irish pupils eligible for FSM, with girls scoring 1 point more (33.1 and 32.1 respectively)

7. By ethnicity, gender and area

Attainment 8 scores by ethnicity, gender and area
All Asian Black Chinese Mixed White
Local authority All Boys Girls All Boys Girls All Boys Girls All Boys Girls All Boys Girls All Boys Girls
County Durham 44.6 42.2 47.2 51.1 42.6 55.2 45.2 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 70.6 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 50.0 43.5 58.3 44.8 42.5 47.3
Darlington 45.3 43.0 47.4 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 45.2 42.9 47.4
Gateshead 46.8 44.0 49.7 52.1 52.2 52.0 40.1 41.8 39.4 60.9 58.8 63.8 58.7 57.6 59.6 46.3 43.6 49.2
Hartlepool 44.0 40.8 47.4 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 45.6 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* N/A* N/A* withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 43.7 40.6 47.0
Middlesbrough 43.2 40.4 46.4 52.7 49.4 56.0 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 42.5 40.0 45.4
Newcastle upon Tyne 43.3 41.5 45.3 49.1 46.8 51.9 40.4 36.5 44.5 54.4 45.9 62.3 47.4 46.9 48.0 42.6 40.9 44.4
North Tyneside 47.0 43.9 50.3 49.6 44.2 53.5 33.9 28.8 44.2 60.7 56.2 68.9 53.3 52.8 53.8 46.8 43.6 50.2
Northumberland 44.7 41.8 47.7 46.8 45.1 48.4 49.8 N/A* 49.8 56.3 56.3 56.3 50.6 57.6 46.4 44.6 41.6 47.7
Redcar and Cleveland 44.0 40.6 47.3 52.3 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* 50.2 49.5 50.9 44.1 40.4 47.6
South Tyneside 43.0 40.5 45.7 48.2 52.9 45.4 44.9 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 46.3 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 47.2 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 43.0 40.4 45.8
Stockton-on-Tees 45.6 43.0 48.1 48.0 45.4 49.8 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 45.4 42.9 47.9
Sunderland 43.8 41.8 46.0 50.0 49.1 50.8 48.7 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 59.8 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 41.0 38.1 45.0 43.5 41.5 45.8
Blackburn with Darwen 46.4 44.3 48.5 50.3 47.2 53.7 39.3 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 51.6 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 44.5 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 43.3 41.5 44.9
Blackpool 38.8 35.9 41.4 53.6 43.6 62.8 18.8 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 53.4 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 40.0 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 38.6 35.8 41.0
Bolton 43.7 40.7 46.8 48.6 45.5 52.4 40.6 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 62.1 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 43.3 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 42.5 39.4 45.6
Bury 46.0 43.6 48.4 46.9 48.0 45.8 35.8 34.0 41.0 57.7 54.2 60.7 46.2 44.2 47.8 46.0 43.2 48.9
Cheshire East 48.9 46.6 51.3 53.9 54.8 52.9 47.7 46.6 48.8 67.8 62.5 71.6 48.9 47.7 50.2 48.8 46.4 51.2
Cheshire West and Chester 46.5 44.2 49.1 43.9 43.0 44.5 48.4 49.3 46.3 60.7 62.8 58.6 50.5 44.2 55.4 46.4 44.1 49.0
Cumbria 46.3 43.6 49.0 52.2 51.9 52.4 49.3 37.8 54.2 63.6 55.9 69.1 53.7 51.1 56.3 46.3 43.7 48.8
Halton 44.9 41.6 48.0 59.8 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* withheld to protect confidentiality 48.0 51.4 46.5 44.8 41.3 48.1
Knowsley 37.6 35.6 39.8 38.4 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 40.5 39.8 41.6 37.5 35.5 39.7
Lancashire 45.7 42.9 48.6 46.8 44.9 48.8 39.7 32.8 45.2 64.4 62.9 66.2 47.2 45.4 49.0 45.4 42.5 48.5
Liverpool 44.2 41.7 46.6 53.9 56.3 51.5 43.7 39.7 47.4 60.7 62.2 59.3 46.3 43.6 48.3 43.5 40.9 46.1
Manchester 43.4 40.1 46.7 48.4 45.2 51.5 43.2 40.1 46.4 55.4 53.9 57.5 42.8 38.5 46.6 40.5 37.0 44.1
Oldham 43.6 40.8 46.5 44.3 40.8 48.2 43.2 39.6 47.3 59.7 51.9 67.5 41.7 40.3 43.2 43.4 40.9 46.0
Rochdale 42.5 40.2 45.1 44.0 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 40.8 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 58.5 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 38.5 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 42.3 39.9 44.8
Salford 41.7 38.0 45.3 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* withheld to protect confidentiality 44.6 41.9 47.1 41.2 37.7 44.7
Sefton 44.9 43.0 46.8 54.2 51.3 57.0 41.5 39.8 42.9 58.4 53.3 62.6 45.8 40.9 50.0 45.5 43.4 47.8
St. Helens 43.8 41.7 45.8 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 58.5 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 47.1 42.4 51.8 44.4 42.2 46.5
Stockport 48.2 46.0 50.5 51.1 50.3 52.1 47.1 45.3 48.1 53.8 50.4 68.8 48.1 46.4 49.7 47.9 45.4 50.4
Tameside 44.8 42.7 46.9 48.9 46.9 50.9 41.2 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 64.8 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 45.7 42.7 48.1 44.2 42.1 46.3
Trafford 55.6 52.9 58.3 60.4 57.1 64.4 53.7 53.8 53.6 69.9 66.2 74.3 54.9 52.9 57.5 54.8 52.1 57.5
Warrington 47.0 44.3 49.9 55.6 49.9 60.8 40.4 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 51.6 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 47.5 37.7 55.0 47.0 44.4 49.7
Wigan 46.2 43.3 49.2 48.8 48.6 49.4 48.3 42.9 59.6 61.7 57.6 69.8 49.0 47.1 50.8 46.1 43.1 49.2
Wirral 48.1 45.5 50.8 61.1 59.7 61.9 50.4 48.8 55.3 60.0 54.0 70.4 54.4 51.4 57.5 47.7 45.1 50.3
Barnsley 44.0 41.7 46.4 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 49.3 44.0 53.6 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 48.5 47.1 49.5 43.9 41.7 46.3
Bradford 42.4 39.8 44.9 43.0 40.3 45.8 43.7 43.7 43.7 57.2 47.0 61.6 40.3 36.2 43.8 42.0 39.8 44.2
Calderdale 48.2 46.2 50.4 49.1 45.8 53.2 46.4 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 67.8 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 45.7 44.9 46.5 48.1 46.3 50.0
Doncaster 43.6 41.6 45.7 51.0 48.9 53.2 50.7 43.5 57.6 68.1 73.2 63.8 43.0 40.4 45.9 43.2 41.2 45.1
East Riding of Yorkshire 47.2 45.0 49.4 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 53.1 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 49.8 45.5 51.9 47.0 44.9 49.2
Kingston upon Hull, City of 42.6 40.4 45.1 56.0 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 49.2 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 67.7 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 45.5 41.3 50.8 42.5 40.2 45.2
Kirklees 45.3 42.5 48.3 45.0 41.9 48.2 40.9 41.3 40.6 67.1 62.7 69.8 39.3 35.9 42.6 46.0 43.2 48.9
Leeds 45.1 43.1 47.2 43.9 41.8 46.3 45.0 42.9 46.9 61.3 58.4 65.9 43.9 41.8 46.3 46.1 44.2 48.1
North East Lincolnshire 43.8 42.0 45.7 withheld to protect confidentiality 38.4 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 55.2 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* withheld to protect confidentiality 47.5 52.9 45.9 44.1 42.1 46.2
North Lincolnshire 44.8 41.8 47.8 48.9 42.1 55.3 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 52.4 47.2 57.3 44.5 41.7 47.3
North Yorkshire 49.6 46.7 52.6 58.5 57.1 60.1 49.4 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 55.0 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 51.8 47.3 56.0 49.4 46.5 52.4
Rotherham 45.0 42.6 47.4 44.7 43.9 45.4 49.1 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 44.7 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 47.8 45.4 50.2 44.9 42.6 47.3
Sheffield 44.6 42.6 46.8 46.9 45.4 48.4 42.9 40.6 45.6 57.1 60.5 53.7 41.7 39.1 44.4 44.6 42.5 46.9
Wakefield 45.5 43.3 47.6 49.3 48.5 50.1 41.2 34.9 46.6 59.1 59.3 58.9 45.1 42.7 47.4 45.4 43.3 47.5
York 49.3 46.4 52.4 57.0 56.5 58.1 51.6 44.6 58.5 55.5 39.3 67.7 49.4 47.2 53.6 49.0 46.0 52.2
Derby 42.6 40.2 45.3 46.6 44.9 48.8 withheld to protect confidentiality 32.4 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 49.0 withheld to protect confidentiality 39.1 35.5 42.7 42.0 39.5 44.8
Derbyshire 45.6 43.1 48.2 44.0 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 48.7 48.3 49.0 45.5 43.0 48.1
Leicester 42.8 40.0 46.0 47.3 44.6 50.4 41.0 36.8 45.4 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 38.1 35.1 41.4
Leicestershire 45.7 43.2 48.3 54.9 51.5 58.5 43.9 40.5 49.4 61.8 58.2 64.4 44.2 41.8 47.1 44.9 42.5 47.4
Lincolnshire 46.4 44.0 48.8 61.4 60.0 62.6 45.4 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 62.8 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 50.7 44.5 57.8 46.0 43.8 48.4
Northamptonshire 44.7 42.7 46.8 50.5 50.8 50.0 45.4 42.0 48.8 67.8 67.9 67.7 44.5 40.8 48.1 44.3 42.3 46.3
Nottingham 40.3 37.8 42.8 46.4 45.5 47.1 40.6 36.8 44.7 57.0 51.6 62.3 39.1 36.7 41.4 38.5 36.2 41.1
Nottinghamshire 47.8 45.2 50.5 55.7 51.9 59.5 45.5 41.4 49.8 64.7 55.9 71.0 49.2 44.8 53.5 47.6 45.1 50.1
Rutland 52.2 51.5 52.9 62.1 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 52.1 51.4 52.9
Birmingham 46.1 43.4 48.7 47.2 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 43.5 40.7 46.3 61.6 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 45.9 42.6 49.3 45.6 42.6 48.4
Coventry 42.8 39.7 45.9 48.6 45.2 51.9 43.8 41.2 46.3 69.9 69.2 70.4 39.7 36.1 43.4 41.2 38.1 44.3
Dudley 43.7 41.8 45.9 43.2 41.3 45.2 43.2 38.9 47.3 61.4 49.5 77.3 43.5 41.3 46.3 43.9 42.1 45.9
Herefordshire, County of 45.7 43.1 48.2 62.1 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 38.3 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 45.4 42.8 48.0
Sandwell 42.4 40.5 44.3 44.8 42.5 47.5 40.2 37.8 42.5 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 41.6 40.0 43.1
Shropshire 46.4 43.8 49.1 49.6 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 55.7 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 62.0 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 46.9 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 46.3 43.8 48.9
Solihull 47.1 44.6 49.6 52.6 50.0 55.0 45.9 42.5 48.4 68.1 64.7 71.6 45.3 42.7 47.9 46.8 44.4 49.2
Staffordshire 44.9 41.9 47.9 47.1 44.1 50.1 41.5 39.0 43.4 59.0 62.6 55.8 43.3 40.2 46.9 44.8 41.9 47.9
Stoke-on-Trent 43.3 39.6 46.8 44.9 41.3 48.2 46.0 41.8 50.3 59.8 54.5 63.0 42.9 39.8 45.6 43.0 39.5 46.4
Telford and Wrekin 46.4 44.5 48.6 48.6 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 47.3 50.3 44.2 64.0 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 47.6 45.0 50.2 46.0 43.8 48.4
Walsall 43.2 41.0 45.3 47.6 45.3 50.4 43.6 40.2 47.3 73.0 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 42.2 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 41.9 39.8 43.9
Warwickshire 49.0 46.5 51.5 56.9 55.0 59.4 46.3 49.2 44.3 70.6 64.2 74.2 50.3 49.9 50.7 48.5 45.8 51.3
Wolverhampton 45.0 39.9 49.8 52.1 47.4 56.3 44.5 39.7 49.9 46.9 38.2 54.2 40.0 36.2 43.9 43.0 37.5 48.2
Worcestershire 46.4 43.8 49.1 48.0 45.3 50.6 39.9 40.0 39.8 64.0 65.5 62.1 45.7 43.8 47.4 46.4 43.7 49.1
Bedford 45.9 42.9 48.9 45.4 42.1 48.9 42.1 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 71.9 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 40.4 37.7 43.4 46.8 43.9 49.5
Cambridgeshire 47.7 44.9 50.6 50.7 48.7 52.8 40.0 37.5 44.9 63.1 61.6 66.0 50.1 48.4 52.1 47.6 44.7 50.6
Central Bedfordshire 45.5 42.5 48.9 53.7 49.3 58.3 39.7 31.0 55.3 60.7 67.5 55.6 43.0 42.6 43.5 45.5 42.5 48.9
Essex 46.7 43.9 49.4 61.2 59.3 63.8 50.3 45.9 53.9 65.4 63.3 67.9 48.7 47.2 50.1 46.0 43.1 48.8
Hertfordshire 49.7 46.7 52.8 55.6 52.0 59.2 46.6 42.8 50.3 66.4 64.3 70.9 50.5 46.1 54.5 49.2 46.4 52.1
Luton 43.5 41.1 45.9 46.5 43.9 49.2 42.3 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 65.4 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 39.6 39.0 40.4 41.4 39.2 43.6
Norfolk 45.0 42.5 47.5 54.3 50.6 58.0 44.3 39.5 49.6 61.8 58.0 64.8 48.5 46.2 51.0 44.8 42.4 47.3
Peterborough 42.1 39.9 44.5 44.1 42.4 46.0 43.6 43.4 43.8 62.9 66.2 60.9 41.0 36.5 45.3 41.6 39.1 44.1
Southend-on-Sea 50.4 48.7 52.2 59.9 59.6 60.2 60.4 59.3 61.5 66.1 62.5 73.7 53.1 50.2 55.8 48.7 46.9 50.6
Suffolk 44.7 42.2 47.2 52.4 49.1 55.4 38.0 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 63.0 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 43.6 40.1 47.8 44.7 42.4 47.0
Thurrock 44.4 41.9 46.9 53.7 53.1 54.3 48.9 46.0 51.9 70.9 54.0 78.1 45.9 44.6 47.4 43.2 40.7 45.7
Camden 48.3 44.3 51.2 46.4 44.6 48.3 44.9 37.6 49.0 70.9 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 49.3 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 49.7 46.2 52.2
City of London N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A*
Hackney 49.4 46.2 52.1 50.1 46.9 52.9 46.9 43.2 50.0 70.1 64.0 77.8 48.2 46.6 49.2 52.2 48.9 55.1
Hammersmith and Fulham 50.9 47.2 54.8 52.4 49.4 56.1 43.1 41.4 45.2 70.6 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 46.2 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 56.6 53.7 59.0
Haringey 46.5 44.6 48.6 49.0 47.7 50.1 42.1 38.2 46.1 59.8 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 47.0 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 48.6 47.7 49.7
Islington 45.6 43.8 47.5 49.2 47.4 50.8 43.6 40.0 47.1 57.2 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 44.8 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 44.7 43.6 46.0
Kensington and Chelsea 55.0 55.5 54.2 55.4 48.8 62.0 50.1 49.7 50.6 68.3 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 54.5 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 56.9 58.6 53.9
Lambeth 44.3 40.9 48.0 48.8 45.4 55.0 41.9 37.0 46.3 62.4 60.9 65.9 43.0 39.5 47.3 47.6 45.3 50.8
Lewisham 44.2 41.5 47.2 44.2 41.4 47.2 42.3 39.1 45.7 58.4 56.5 61.8 45.8 43.9 48.1 45.2 42.1 48.8
Newham 48.4 46.1 50.7 52.4 50.7 54.2 45.3 42.6 48.0 63.9 63.9 63.7 44.6 41.5 47.8 43.2 39.8 46.5
Southwark 50.5 49.0 51.8 54.2 52.6 55.7 48.6 46.4 50.7 57.3 55.2 59.9 48.8 47.6 49.8 52.2 52.3 52.2
Tower Hamlets 47.2 44.1 50.3 49.9 46.6 53.2 46.7 43.1 50.1 51.0 39.5 62.5 44.5 39.0 49.8 40.7 38.9 42.6
Wandsworth 49.5 48.2 51.1 49.4 50.1 48.5 45.0 42.5 47.9 65.7 75.1 58.9 51.3 50.2 52.4 52.9 51.1 55.4
Westminster 52.6 47.7 57.0 54.7 53.0 57.2 49.6 45.1 54.1 63.5 61.2 64.6 53.4 46.9 58.8 56.2 46.3 62.0
Barking and Dagenham 46.7 43.5 50.1 53.0 50.3 55.9 47.4 42.7 52.3 48.0 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 45.6 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 43.3 40.9 46.1
Barnet 54.7 52.3 57.2 64.3 65.3 63.1 47.6 44.1 50.8 69.1 69.0 69.3 54.9 51.1 58.8 53.9 50.8 57.2
Bexley 49.0 46.5 51.5 60.4 56.2 63.9 54.9 51.5 57.9 60.6 57.0 66.6 50.6 49.4 51.4 45.8 43.8 48.0
Brent 49.0 46.8 51.1 51.9 49.8 54.1 42.4 39.5 45.1 66.1 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 45.8 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 46.7 43.7 49.5
Bromley 49.8 46.9 52.5 60.8 59.9 61.6 51.1 47.6 54.1 69.2 74.0 64.6 51.4 47.3 54.6 50.3 47.6 52.8
Croydon 45.0 41.3 48.5 51.5 48.0 55.3 43.0 39.3 46.6 64.5 67.1 61.9 47.2 44.8 49.1 45.6 41.7 49.0
Ealing 48.7 46.1 51.5 50.9 48.6 53.4 44.0 40.4 47.6 47.9 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 48.7 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 50.0 47.5 52.7
Enfield 46.2 44.1 48.6 56.5 54.9 58.4 44.2 41.3 47.2 67.6 75.1 58.2 47.7 47.6 47.7 45.2 43.0 47.7
Greenwich 45.9 43.3 48.8 50.5 47.9 53.1 46.2 44.0 48.5 59.3 57.8 60.0 45.7 44.2 47.3 44.6 41.7 48.0
Harrow 49.7 46.8 52.6 54.1 51.7 56.8 41.8 38.5 44.9 68.5 N/A* 68.5 49.0 48.5 49.6 47.6 43.2 51.7
Havering 47.5 45.6 49.5 52.4 49.0 54.7 50.8 48.2 53.5 66.8 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 48.2 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 46.5 44.9 48.3
Hillingdon 47.1 44.2 50.4 53.1 50.7 56.0 43.9 40.7 47.7 35.4 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 48.6 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 44.4 41.1 48.0
Hounslow 48.0 45.6 50.7 54.2 51.3 57.6 46.4 44.0 48.9 71.3 69.8 73.3 48.3 45.2 52.0 47.9 46.8 49.0
Kingston upon Thames 55.5 53.3 57.6 62.0 59.2 64.4 45.5 44.0 47.0 79.6 78.8 80.4 54.9 56.6 53.7 53.0 50.9 54.9
Merton 50.2 47.5 53.0 52.7 53.4 51.8 46.8 42.5 50.7 56.6 54.4 59.5 51.7 47.1 56.2 50.5 47.7 53.4
Redbridge 51.2 48.2 54.4 55.3 52.6 58.2 44.8 40.4 49.1 59.7 58.6 62.2 48.8 46.3 51.9 46.9 44.1 50.0
Richmond upon Thames 52.7 49.3 56.2 51.8 48.8 55.1 39.2 36.7 42.2 62.3 53.0 67.9 54.0 50.5 57.9 53.4 50.0 56.6
Sutton 56.2 54.6 57.8 68.7 68.5 68.9 53.5 47.6 59.9 76.4 75.2 77.7 58.7 57.5 59.8 51.4 49.9 53.0
Waltham Forest 45.5 43.0 47.9 47.9 46.8 49.0 42.0 39.2 44.7 51.1 40.7 65.3 44.2 42.6 46.2 46.0 42.6 49.4
Bracknell Forest 46.3 44.2 48.5 51.1 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 44.9 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 42.9 39.7 45.4 46.2 44.0 48.4
Brighton and Hove 46.8 43.9 50.0 49.2 44.1 55.4 45.5 40.3 51.5 69.7 67.3 72.0 46.3 43.7 48.7 46.6 43.8 49.8
Buckinghamshire 52.9 50.0 56.1 53.7 49.9 57.6 47.9 47.3 48.7 69.9 67.5 73.0 52.7 49.1 56.6 52.8 49.9 55.8
East Sussex 45.3 42.7 48.1 52.5 47.4 56.7 39.3 37.8 42.1 54.9 48.9 60.9 46.8 41.0 53.0 45.1 42.8 47.7
Hampshire 47.0 44.2 50.0 52.3 48.6 57.0 44.1 39.6 49.0 57.3 55.3 59.1 48.2 45.5 50.9 46.8 44.0 49.8
Isle of Wight 40.1 37.7 43.0 54.5 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 45.7 47.1 44.2 39.9 37.4 42.8
Kent 46.3 43.7 49.0 57.6 56.6 58.7 52.7 48.4 56.8 68.1 68.3 68.0 51.1 46.8 55.3 45.4 42.9 48.0
Medway 45.7 44.0 47.4 57.0 55.5 58.3 51.5 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 63.4 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 48.4 44.5 52.8 44.4 42.8 46.1
Milton Keynes 44.9 42.6 47.5 49.5 48.1 50.8 44.6 42.0 47.3 63.2 63.4 63.0 44.3 42.7 46.5 44.3 41.7 47.0
Oxfordshire 47.6 44.8 50.4 46.3 44.3 48.2 45.2 43.3 47.9 60.3 54.8 65.1 46.2 43.3 49.7 47.7 44.9 50.5
Portsmouth 42.3 39.2 45.9 56.2 52.8 59.2 48.0 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 69.7 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 46.8 43.3 50.4 41.0 38.0 44.4
Reading 49.6 47.8 51.5 56.5 53.4 58.9 41.7 37.0 44.9 80.8 79.5 82.5 46.6 42.0 51.2 48.9 48.2 49.8
Slough 52.2 49.0 55.4 55.3 52.8 58.1 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 50.1 49.4 50.7 47.7 42.7 52.6
Southampton 44.2 41.5 46.8 50.9 47.3 54.5 43.0 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 68.6 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 47.3 43.4 50.5 43.1 40.7 45.4
Surrey 50.0 47.4 52.7 54.0 50.5 57.8 48.5 44.9 52.3 67.1 64.7 69.1 51.8 50.1 53.7 49.5 47.1 52.1
West Berkshire 47.4 44.5 50.5 53.5 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 40.4 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 69.9 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 47.9 40.8 54.0 48.0 45.2 51.1
West Sussex 46.8 43.9 49.9 49.5 46.2 52.9 39.6 35.4 44.9 53.0 57.0 50.4 48.8 46.1 52.2 46.7 43.8 49.8
Windsor and Maidenhead 49.4 47.1 51.5 49.3 45.1 53.2 49.4 44.1 53.0 43.4 34.0 51.0 45.2 43.8 45.9 49.9 47.9 51.7
Wokingham 51.7 48.8 54.8 53.8 51.2 57.2 46.1 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 69.2 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 49.7 49.7 49.7 51.7 48.6 54.9
Bath and North East Somerset 47.5 43.3 51.8 56.3 53.4 59.4 37.0 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 55.8 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 44.5 39.4 47.4 47.7 43.5 52.0
Bournemouth 48.0 45.7 50.5 55.7 54.0 57.8 44.7 42.5 46.3 59.1 72.3 43.4 48.6 49.3 47.4 47.7 45.2 50.4
Bristol, City of 44.0 40.7 47.4 46.8 44.3 49.4 39.4 39.2 39.7 52.2 48.9 56.7 44.8 40.3 48.3 44.3 40.5 48.2
Cornwall 45.7 43.3 48.3 45.4 54.2 39.9 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 48.2 43.8 51.8 45.7 43.3 48.3
Devon 46.5 43.8 49.4 55.8 50.0 59.8 25.2 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 51.8 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 51.5 49.1 53.7 46.4 43.7 49.3
Dorset 45.2 42.5 48.0 49.1 48.2 49.6 44.3 N/A* 44.3 55.0 56.2 53.9 46.7 42.5 51.7 45.1 42.4 48.0
Gloucestershire 48.4 45.8 51.2 56.0 55.6 56.5 40.7 36.9 43.3 60.7 66.8 57.4 48.4 45.4 51.3 48.3 45.6 51.2
Isles of Scilly 45.0 37.7 51.5 N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality