- 1. Main facts and figures
- 2. By ethnicity
- 3. By ethnicity (2 ethnic groups)
- 4. By ethnicity over time
- 5. By ethnicity and gender
- 6. By ethnicity and age group
- 7. By ethnicity and age group over time (16 to 24 year olds only)
- 8. By ethnicity and area
- 9. Methodology
- 10. Data sources
- 11. Download the data
1. Main facts and figures
- in 2017, the total working age population (people aged 16 to 64 years) in England, Wales and Scotland was just under 40 million – of those, just over 34 million people were White, and nearly 6 million people were from all other ethnic groups combined
- overall, in 2017, 4% of the economically active population was unemployed – the ‘economically active population’ includes all people who are available for work, whether they are employed or unemployed (and it excludes people who are retired, caring for family, or in full-time education and not in paid work)
- in 2017, just under 4% of White people were unemployed, compared with 8% of people from all other ethnic groups combined
- the Pakistani/Bangladeshi ethnic group had the highest rate of unemployment in 2017 (10%), and the Other White group had the lowest rate (4%)
- in every region in England, Wales and Scotland, unemployment rates were higher for people from ethnic minorities (other than White ethnic minorities) compared with White people; these differences were largest in Yorkshire and The Humber, North West, South West, and the West Midlands
The ethnic categories used in this data
Data is shown for the following ethnic groups:
- Pakistani or Bangladeshi
- Any other Asian ethnicity (including Chinese)
- White British
- White other
Any other ethnic group
Where data is broken down by gender, age group, and area, the number of people surveyed (the ‘sample size’) was too small to draw any firm conclusions about specific ethnic categories, so data is shown for the following 2 categories:
- White – White ethnic groups (including White British and White ethnic minorities)
- Other – all other ethnic minorities
People whose ethnicity is 'Unknown' (because their ethnicity was not recorded or they chose not to state their ethnicity) are counted when calculating the total number of people in employment (shown as the ‘All’ group in the data).
2. By ethnicity
|Pakistani and Bangladeshi||10||74,700|
|Asian other inc Chinese||withheld because a small sample size makes it unreliable||withheld because a small sample size makes it unreliable|
|Mixed||withheld because a small sample size makes it unreliable||withheld because a small sample size makes it unreliable|
3. By ethnicity (2 ethnic groups)
|Other than White||8||317,000|
4. By ethnicity over time
|Pakistani and Bangladeshi||13||13||15||15||15||17||16||N/A*||17||18||14||12||11||10|
|Asian other inc Chinese||9||8||8||9||7||9||9||N/A*||10||9||8||7||6||withheld because a small sample size makes it unreliable|
|Mixed||12||12||withheld because a small sample size makes it unreliable||12||13||14||15||N/A*||16||16||13||11||11||withheld because a small sample size makes it unreliable|
5. By ethnicity and gender
|Ethnicity||All %||All Unemployed people||Men %||Men Unemployed people||Women %||Women Unemployed people|
|Other than White||8||317,000||7||155,600||9||161,400|
6. By ethnicity and age group
|All||White||Other than White|
|age_band||All %||All Total unemployed||White %||White Total unemployed||Other than White %||Other than White Total unemployed|
|65+||2||22,400||2||19,600||withheld because a small sample size makes it unreliable||withheld because a small sample size makes it unreliable|
7. By ethnicity and age group over time (16 to 24 year olds only)
|All||White||Other than White|
|year||All %||All Total unemployed||White %||White Total unemployed||Other than White %||Other than White Total unemployed|
8. By ethnicity and area
|All||White||Other than White|
|region||All %||All Total unemployed||White %||White Total unemployed||Other than White %||Other than White Total unemployed|
|East of England||4||114,700||3||97,500||6||17,200|
|Wales||5||71,500||5||67,100||withheld because a small sample size makes it unreliable||withheld because a small sample size makes it unreliable|
|Yorkshire and The Humber||5||134,900||5||109,200||10||25,700|
The Annual Population Survey (APS) is a continuous household survey. Most people are interviewed in person first, and later by telephone. The sample is formed partly from waves 1 and 5 of the Labour Force Survey (in which selected addresses are contacted every 3 months) and partly from boost cases that are in the sample for 4 waves, spread one year apart.
Participants are randomly selected from the Royal Mail Postcode address File (PAF). The NHS communal accommodation list is also used and (in the case of remote parts of Scotland) telephone directories. All eligible individuals found at the selected address may be interviewed. Individuals are included in the dataset for this analysis if they respond themselves or if a family member responds on their behalf. The complex survey design has been taken into account when calculating confidence intervals.
The achieved sample of approximately 275,000 undergoes weighting which is structured at local authority level and uses age and sex dimensions.
Weighting is used to adjust the results of a survey to make them representative of the population and improve their accuracy For example, a survey which contains 25% females and 75% males will not accurately reflect the views of the general population, which we know is around 50% male and 50% female.
Statisticians rebalance or ‘weight’ the survey results to more accurately represent the general population. This helps to make them more reliable.
Survey weights are usually applied to make sure the survey sample has broadly the same gender, age, ethnic and geographic makeup as the general population.
The Office for National Statistics population estimates and projections are used as the basis for this weighting process.
Confidence intervals for each ethnic group are available if you download the data.
Based on the APS, it is estimated that 3.9% of White individuals who were economically active were unemployed in 2017.
The data from the APS is based on a sample of the population in England, Wales and Scotland, rather than the whole population. The estimate obtained from this sample is a reliable estimate of the percentage of individuals unemployed, but it’s impossible to be 100% certain of the true percentage for the whole population.
It’s 95% certain, however, that somewhere between 3% (lower bound of the confidence interval) and 4.8% (upper bound of the confidence interval) of White individuals who were economically active were unemployed in 2017. In statistical terms, this is a 95% confidence interval. This means that if 100 random samples were taken, then 95 times out of 100 the estimate would fall between the lower and upper bounds of the confidence interval. But 5 times out of 100 it would fall outside this range.
The smaller the survey sample, the more uncertain the estimate and the wider the confidence interval. For example, the sample has less data for individuals from the Black ethnic group than from the White ethnic group, so we can be less certain about the estimate for the smaller group. This greater uncertainty is expressed by a wider confidence interval, of between 3.8% and 14.4% for the Black ethnic group compared with 3% and 4.8% for the White ethnic group in 2017.
Suppression rules and disclosure control
In data covering all ethnic groups together, estimates based on sample sizes of less than 30 have been suppressed. For data broken down by ethnic groups, estimates based on sample sizes under 100 have been suppressed.
‘Suppression’ means these figures have not been included in the data, to protect confidentiality and because the numbers involved are too small to draw any reliable conclusions.
Percentages are rounded to whole numbers in charts and tables. Download the data to see the percentages rounded to 1 decimal place.
10. Data sources
Type of data
Type of statistic
Office for National Statistics
Purpose of data source
The main purpose of the Annual Population Survey (APS) is to provide good quality estimates about the UK workforce. It’s the largest household study in the UK in terms of how many people it’s sent to and how in depth the questions are. It provides the official measures of employment and unemployment.
The survey measures all elements of people's work, including:
- the education and training needed to equip them for work
- features of their jobs
- unemployment and job seeking
- income from work and benefits
11. Download the data
This file contains the following variables: measure, year, region, ethnicity, ethnicity_type, sex, age_band, value, confidence_interval, numerator, denominator, samp_size
This file contains the following variables: measure, age_band, year, local_authority, ethnicity, ethnicity_type, value, confidence_interval, numerator, denominator, samp_size