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1. Main facts and figures
in the last 3 months of 2016, the average (mean) hourly pay for all employees was £13.69
in the last 3 months of 2016, the average hourly pay for White employees was £13.75, while the average hourly pay for employees from all other ethnic groups combined was £13.18
Indian employees had the highest average hourly pay (£15.81), while Pakistani/Bangladeshi employees had the lowest average hourly pay (£11.42)
on average, employees from the Mixed and Indian ethnic groups earned more per hour than White employees, whereas those from the Pakistani/Bangladeshi, Black, and Other ethnic groups earned less
The ethnic categories used in this data
The analysis uses the following broad ethnic categories, based on the 2001 Census:
- Other (which includes Chinese, Other Asian and Other ethnic groups)
This analysis distinguishes between the Indian ethnic group and the Pakistani and Bangladeshi groups (which are combined). This reflects the different employment-related outcomes among different Asian ethnic groups, and is in line with other publications on the official labour market statistics website, Nomis.
2. Average hourly pay by ethnicity
|Ethnicity||Jan-Mar 2013||Apr-Jun 2013||Jul-Sep 2013||Oct-Dec 2013||Jan-Mar 2014||Apr-Jun 2014||Jul-Sep 2014||Oct-Dec 2014||Jan-Mar 2015||Apr-Jun 2015||Jul-Sep 2015||Oct-Dec 2015||Jan-Mar 2016||Apr-Jun 2016||Jul-Sep 2016||Oct-Dec 2016|
|Ethnic minorities (excluding White minorities)||12.84||12.67||12.69||12.43||12.81||12.26||13.41||12.65||12.56||12.79||12.89||13.61||13.60||13.86||13.33||13.18|
The data gives estimates of earnings based on the Labour Force Survey (LFS).
This analysis uses the ‘mean’ average to report hourly pay. The mean is worked out by adding up the hourly pay of all respondents and dividing by the number of respondents.
The choice of the 'mean' as a measure of average hourly pay is affected by extreme measures which may not reflect some of the lower paid people in each ethnic group. ONS has taken steps to reduce this impact particularly where values over £100 may have been given in error. Using the 'median' as a measure of average pay would be unreliable for ethnic groups where there were small numbers of respondents. (For each ethnic group, if every respondent was lined up in the order of their hourly pay, the median would be the hourly pay of the person in the middle.)
The data on employees’ earnings captured by the LFS is thought to be of a lower quality than other sources, such as the Annual Survey of Hours and Earning (ASHE) and the Average Weekly Earnings survey (AWE). This is because employees report the information themselves rather than their employers. However, this analysis uses LFS because neither ASHE nor AWE collect data on employees’ ethnicity.
The LFS has been held continuously since 1992. It is designed to produce nationally representative results for any 3-month period.
Each sample in the LFS is made up of 5 waves. The sample consists of approximately 40,000 UK households and 100,000 individuals per quarter. Respondents are interviewed for 5 successive waves at 3-monthly intervals and 20% of the sample is replaced every quarter. Respondents are only asked about their pay in the first and last of these interviews. The response rate for October to December 2016 was 42%.
All surveys carry the risk of biased results if some types of people were less likely to respond than others. To compensate for this, the responses to this survey have been weighted so they better reflect characteristics of the target population. The weighting scheme was designed so that the sample reflects the target population's age and sex profile, as well as its geographic spread (region and local authority).
Suppression rules and disclosure control
Sample sizes of less than 30 have been suppressed.
Results above £100 an hour have been excluded because they affect the quality of the data.
‘Suppression’ means these figures have not been included in the data, to protect confidentiality and because the numbers involved are too small to draw any reliable conclusions.
Figures have been rounded to the nearest pence.
4. Data sources
Type of data
Type of statistic
Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy
Purpose of data source
The main purpose of the Labour Force Survey (LFS) is to provide good quality estimates about the UK workforce.
The survey measures all aspects of people's work, including:
- the education and training needed to equip them for work
- features of their jobs
- unemployment and jobseeking
- income from work and benefits
5. Download the data
Time, ethnicity, denominator (weighted and unweighted)