People living in deprived neighbourhoods
Last updated 30 September 2020 - see all updates
- 1. Navigate toMain facts and figures section
- 2. Navigate toThings you need to know section
- 3. Navigate toOverall most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by ethnicity section
- 4. Navigate toMost income-deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by ethnicity section
- 5. Navigate toMost employment-deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by ethnicity section
- 6. Navigate toMost deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by type of deprivation and ethnicity section
- 7. Navigate toData sources section
- 8. Navigate toDownload the data section
1. Main facts and figures
- in 2019, people from all ethnic minority groups except the Indian, Chinese, White Irish and White Other groups were more likely than White British people to live in the most overall deprived 10% of neighbourhoods in England
- the most overall deprived 10% of neighbourhoods are measured based on the index of multiple deprivation, which combines 7 types of deprivation
- people from the Pakistani ethnic group were over 3 times as likely as White British people to live in the most overall deprived 10% of neighbourhoods
- people from the Pakistani and Bangladeshi ethnic groups were over 3 times as likely as White British people to live in the most income-deprived 10% of neighbourhoods
- people from the White British, White Irish and White Other ethnic groups were the least likely out of all ethnic groups to live in the most income-deprived 10% of neighbourhoods
- people from the Pakistani ethnic group were more than twice as likely as White British people to live in the most employment-deprived 10% of neighbourhoods
- people from the Indian ethnic group were the least likely out of all ethnic groups to be living in the most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods and the most employment-deprived 10% of neighbourhoods
2. Things you need to know
What the data measures
The data measures the percentage of people from each ethnic group who live in the most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods in England.
The data is based on the index of multiple deprivation, which combines information about 7 different types of deprivation to produce an overall relative measure of deprivation.
Not everyone living in a deprived neighbourhood is deprived, and many deprived people live in non-deprived areas. However, a high number of deprived people in a particular neighbourhood means that area is more likely to be deprived.
In this data, England is divided into neighbourhoods by population size (roughly, 1,500 people in each of the 32,844 areas). These 32,844 neighbourhoods are then divided into 10 equally-sized groups, and ordered from the most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods to the least deprived 10%. Deprivation is measured by comparing neighbourhoods with each other, rather than against an absolute threshold.
All percentages are rounded to one decimal place.
Not included in the data
The data does not show whether the people in the deprived neighbourhoods were themselves deprived.
The ethnic groups used in the data
This data uses the 18 standardised ethnic groups based on the 2011 Census.
Read the detailed methodology document (PDF opens in a new window or tab) for this data, which includes:
- details of the indicators used to compile the indices of deprivation
- more information on how the index of multiple deprivation (IMD) is calculated
The data combines population estimates from the 2011 Census and 2019 data on deprivation. Read more about problems using Census data.
Using the latest available data means that there is not a single consistent time point for all indicators. The highest weighted indicators in the IMD (income and employment deprivation) relate to 2015 to 2016.
In the data file
See Download the data for information on the percentage of people in each ethnic group who lived in the most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods according to the IMD, and each of the 7 individual indices of deprivation.
3. Overall most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by ethnicity
|Mixed White/Black African||13.7||22,143|
|Mixed White/Black Caribbean||17.4||72,293|
Summary of People living in deprived neighbourhoods Overall most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by ethnicity Summary
4. Most income-deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by ethnicity
|Mixed White/Black African||15.5||25,094|
|Mixed White/Black Caribbean||18.8||78,102|
Summary of People living in deprived neighbourhoods Most income-deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by ethnicity Summary
5. Most employment-deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by ethnicity
|Mixed White/Black African||12.2||19,781|
|Mixed White/Black Caribbean||15.7||65,278|
Summary of People living in deprived neighbourhoods Most employment-deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by ethnicity Summary
6. Most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by type of deprivation and ethnicity
|Ethnicity||Education, training and skills %||Health deprivation and disability %||Crime %||Barriers to housing & services %||Living Environment %|
|Mixed White/Black African||10.4||12.0||15.5||19.5||12.2|
|Mixed White/Black Caribbean||14.2||13.8||15.1||14.8||12.2|
Download table data for ‘Most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by type of deprivation and ethnicity’ (CSV) Source data for ‘Most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by type of deprivation and ethnicity’ (CSV)
Summary of People living in deprived neighbourhoods Most deprived 10% of neighbourhoods, by type of deprivation and ethnicity Summary
7. Data sources
Type of data
Type of statistic
Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government
Every 3 to 5 years
Purpose of data source
The English indices of deprivation 2019 measure relative deprivation in small areas in England called ‘lower-layer super output areas’. The index of multiple deprivation (IMD) is the most widely used of these indices and is the official measure of relative deprivation in England. A range of measures which summarise the indices at local authority district level, and other geographies, are also available online.
National and local organisations use the IMD, sometimes in conjunction with other data, to distribute funding or target resources to areas. It is widely used across central government to focus programmes on the most deprived areas.
Locally, it is often used as evidence in the development of strategies, to target interventions, and in bids for funding. The voluntary and community sectors also use the IMD to identify areas where people may benefit from the services they provide.
The neighbourhoods can be viewed on an interactive map showing the location of the most and least deprived areas of England – which is also searchable by postcode.
Type of data
Type of statistic
Office for National Statistics
Every 10 years
Purpose of data source
The Census is carried out every 10 years. Data from the March 2021 Census will not be available until 2022, so 2011 Census data is used instead.
Census data gives the government the information it needs to plan and run public services. It is also used as a benchmark for other statistical estimates, and it can help illustrate differences between various groups in the population.
8. Download the data
This file contains the following: measure, domain of deprivation, decile of deprivation, ethnicity, value, numerator, denominator