# Maths results for 10 to 11 year olds

Published

Last updated 19 September 2019 - see all updates

## 1. Main facts and figures

• in 2017/18, 76% of pupils met the expected standard in maths by the end of key stage 2 (when they are usually 10 or 11 years old)
• 24% of pupils met the higher standard
• out of all ethnic groups, pupils from the Chinese group were the most likely to meet both the expected and higher standards
• pupils from the Chinese ethnic group also made the most progress between key stage 1 and key stage 2
• White Gypsy/Roma pupils were the least likely to meet the expected standard
• pupils from the White Gypsy/Roma and White Irish Traveller groups were the least likely to meet the higher standard
• Black Caribbean, and Mixed White and Black Caribbean, pupils made the least progress between key stage 1 and key stage 2
• in most ethnic groups, a higher percentage of boys than girls met the higher standard
Things you need to know

In 2017/18, there were 619,573 pupils taking key stage 2 maths at state-funded schools in England, and ethnicity was known for 614,010 (99%) of them.

Of those whose ethnicity was known, 75% were White, 11% were Asian, 6% were Black, 6% were Mixed, 0.4% were Chinese and 2% were from another ethnic group.

Pupil numbers for key stage 2 vary between measures of attainment for different subjects. This is because pupils who don't have a valid result for a particular subject are excluded from the total. For more about valid results, see the Methodology section.

Previous versions of this page included attainment figures broken down by local authority area. The 2017/18 figures for local authorities will be added as soon as they are available.

What the data measures

This data measures the maths attainment of pupils at the end of key stage 2 when children are usually 10 or 11 years old.

The data covers the academic year 2017/18 (September 2017 to July 2018). Download the data if you want data for the academic year 2015/16 and 2016/17.

Standards in maths are divided into 2 categories:

• expected standard – to meet this, pupils must have achieved a ‘scaled score’ of 100 or more
• higher standard (sometimes called the ‘high score’) – to meet this, pupils must have achieved a ‘scaled score’ of 110 or more

For each ethnic group, there are also figures for:

• average scaled score
• progress score

The average scaled score measures the average attainment of pupils in key stage 2 maths tests. Results range from 80 to 120. A scaled score allows for variations in test difficulty year on year by standardising each pupil’s test results. This allows a clearer comparison between years. You can read more about scaled scores at key stage 2.

The progress score measures the progress that pupils make between the end of key stage 1 (primary school year 2) and the end of key stage 2 (year 6). A pupil’s results are compared with the actual achievements of other pupils nationally with similar key stage 1 attainment.

This data shows an average progress score for each ethnic group. A progress score of 0 (the national average) means pupils are making the expected amount of progress. A positive score (0.1 and above) means they are making more progress than average, and a negative score (-0.1 and below) less progress than average.

The ethnic categories used in this data

This data uses categories from the Department for Education’s school census. These groupings are broadly based on the 2001 national Census, with 3 exceptions:

• Traveller of Irish Heritage and Gypsy/Roma children have been separated into 2 categories
• Sri Lankan is included in the Asian/Asian British group but is not reported separately
• Chinese pupils have been assigned a separate category from Asian

These changes were made after consultations with local authorities and lobby groups.

Data is reported for broad and detailed ethnic categories. These are

Asian/Asian British:

• Indian
• Pakistani
• Sri Lankan
• Other Asian background

Black/African/Caribbean/Black British:

• Black African
• Black Caribbean
• Black Other

Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups:

• White and Black Caribbean
• White and Black African
• White and Asian
• Other Mixed background

White:

• White British
• White Irish
• Traveller of Irish Heritage
• Gypsy/Roma
• Other White

Chinese

Other ethnic group

## 2. By ethnicity

Percentage of pupils meeting the expected and higher standards in maths, and average scaled score and progress score, by ethnicity
Ethnicity Expected standard Higher standard Average scaled Progress score
All 76 24 104 0.0
Asian 81 32 106 1.9
Bangladeshi 81 30 106 2.0
Indian 87 44 108 2.6
Pakistani 75 23 104 1.1
Asian other 85 40 107 2.8
Black 75 21 104 0.3
Black African 78 24 105 0.9
Black Caribbean 66 13 102 -1.3
Black other 72 18 103 0.0
Chinese 94 61 111 4.7
Mixed 75 24 104 0.0
Mixed White/Asian 81 33 106 0.7
Mixed White/Black African 76 22 104 -0.1
Mixed White/Black Caribbean 67 15 102 -1.3
Mixed other 78 27 105 0.6
White 75 22 104 -0.3
White British 75 22 104 -0.5
White Irish 78 28 105 0.3
Gypsy/Roma 30 3 96 -0.7
Irish Traveller 33 3 96 -1.1
White other 76 25 105 2.2
Other 76 26 105 2.3
Unknown 64 19 104 -0.2

### Summary of Maths results for 10 to 11 year olds By ethnicity Summary

The data shows that:

• overall in 2017/18, 76% of pupils met the expected standard in maths by the end of key stage 2 (when they are usually 10 or 11 years old), and 24% met the higher standard
• pupils from the Chinese ethnic group had the highest attainment out of all ethnic groups, with 94% meeting the expected standard and 61% meeting the higher standard
• White Gypsy/Roma pupils had the lowest attainment, with 30% meeting the expected standard; 3% of both White Gypsy/Roma and White Irish Traveller pupils met the higher standard, and White Gypsy/Roma pupils had the lowest average scaled score (96)
• Chinese pupils had the highest average scaled score (111), and made the most progress between key stage 1 and key stage 2 (with a progress score of 4.7)
• Black Caribbean and Mixed White and Black Caribbean pupils made the least progress in maths between key stage 1 and key stage 2, with a progress score of -1.3

## 3. By ethnicity and gender

 Boys Expected standard Boys Higher standard Boys average scaled Boys Progress score Girls Expected standard Boys Girls Ethnicity 75 26 105 0.7 76 22 104 -0.7 81 35 106 2.7 81 30 106 1.1 81 33 106 2.9 81 27 105 1.1 87 45 108 3.4 88 42 108 1.8 75 25 105 1.8 75 20 104 0.3 84 42 108 3.5 85 39 107 2.1 73 21 104 0.7 77 20 104 -0.1 76 25 105 1.3 79 23 105 0.4 63 12 102 -1.0 69 13 102 -1.6 69 18 103 0.2 75 18 104 -0.3 92 62 111 5.3 95 60 111 4.1 75 26 105 0.6 76 23 104 -0.7 81 35 106 1.4 81 30 106 0.0 75 23 104 0.4 77 20 104 -0.8 66 15 102 -0.8 68 15 102 -1.9 77 29 105 1.2 78 26 105 -0.1 75 24 104 0.3 75 20 104 -1.0 75 24 104 0.2 75 20 104 -1.2 77 29 106 0.8 79 26 105 -0.2 30 3 96 -0.2 30 2 95 -1.2 35 4 97 -0.1 31 2 95 -2.1 76 28 105 3.0 76 23 104 1.4 77 29 106 3.2 75 23 105 1.4 63 21 104 0.4 65 17 103 -0.8

### Summary of Maths results for 10 to 11 year olds By ethnicity and gender Summary

This data shows that:

• overall, in 2017/18, 76% of girls and 75% of boys met the expected standard in maths by the end of key stage 2 (when they are usually 10 or 11 years old); 26% of boys and 22% of girls met the higher standard
• girls from the Chinese ethnic group had the highest attainment of all of the ethnic groups across boys and girls, with 95% meeting the expected standard; Chinese boys were most likely to meet the higher standard, with 62%
• White Gypsy/Roma girls and boys had the lowest attainment, with 30% of each gender meeting the expected standard; White Irish Traveller and White Gypsy/Roma girls had the lowest average scaled score (95), and girls from the White Irish Traveller and White Gypsy/Roma groups were least likely to meet the higher standard (at 2% each)
• boys from the Chinese ethnic group made the most progress in maths between key stage 1 and key stage 2, with a progress score of 5.3 points; they also had the highest average scaled score (111), compared with an overall average of 104
• girls from the White Irish Traveller group made the least progress in maths between key stage 1 and key stage 2, with a progress score of -2.1

## 4. By ethnicity and area

 All % All Number Asian % Asian Number Black % All Asian Black Chinese Mixed White Local Authority 80 2,713 90 620 80 877 100 7 80 212 74 934 83 3,317 89 388 78 387 100 55 80 330 85 1,788 77 2,089 82 14 73 16 100 4 83 44 77 1,991 75 1,433 75 21 33 4 71 5 76 76 76 1,316 60 1,223 65 204 56 72 86 6 58 115 60 803 79 2,523 93 234 83 505 97 29 76 176 76 1,517 73 11,376 76 4,302 72 1,470 94 61 70 932 71 3,870 79 1,720 81 813 79 26 100 5 83 53 77 814 76 1,265 84 26 100 5 100 9 75 41 76 1,179 78 2,930 82 732 65 146 92 12 84 129 77 1,863 78 1,293 93 63 89 17 92 11 79 84 77 1,089 75 1,025 83 71 74 34 100 3 75 62 74 845 74 5,659 77 2,507 73 88 100 3 72 297 72 2,641 78 2,855 84 885 74 693 83 5 73 189 79 757 77 2,018 78 72 66 35 100 11 77 230 77 1,607 74 3,452 69 265 66 372 96 25 70 253 77 2,489 83 3,040 91 179 79 264 93 27 86 352 83 2,145 76 4,657 79 810 69 114 90 18 73 329 76 3,309 76 1,753 72 242 68 38 100 5 67 79 78 1,354 75 1,968 75 301 81 13 50 1 68 64 75 1,571 73 4,916 79 220 67 56 100 39 75 272 72 4,241 83 1,249 82 255 81 267 100 7 85 145 83 489 73 2,414 90 76 67 61 92 12 72 154 73 2,083 78 3,134 82 58 74 14 100 15 80 127 77 2,888 75 2,870 81 48 60 9 100 15 83 91 75 2,689 90 26 100 5 50 1 N/A* N/A* 67 2 93 14 72 4,180 81 22 100 6 89 8 75 89 72 4,006 79 4,373 89 31 56 9 77 10 85 60 79 4,232 74 3,086 83 680 75 406 93 14 71 208 71 1,714 78 3,486 89 634 74 1,008 96 22 78 517 77 1,198 76 3,876 86 31 71 5 93 13 75 47 76 3,731 76 941 86 25 100 5 100 3 72 21 76 881 72 2,309 79 461 72 101 93 14 75 208 69 1,475 75 6,145 85 79 71 22 85 22 73 166 75 5,803 75 5,856 88 38 63 10 93 13 82 147 75 5,567 73 2,552 73 76 62 28 94 15 74 77 73 2,321 71 3,091 78 29 86 12 100 9 74 112 71 2,903 70 2,560 76 327 67 63 80 8 68 157 69 1,943 82 3,367 86 1,036 74 484 87 13 81 313 83 986 76 2,693 86 12 50 1 100 2 82 55 76 2,606 74 3,932 90 108 56 19 100 12 72 179 74 3,552 76 3,370 85 332 74 828 100 24 75 326 75 1,599 76 12,234 91 404 82 438 95 69 76 591 75 10,477 81 1,688 76 29 82 28 77 10 61 20 81 1,546 74 4,792 84 168 73 66 85 11 69 223 74 4,253 80 2,598 90 219 82 962 90 38 80 268 76 1,027 79 1,991 84 260 76 697 95 19 79 202 80 671 74 1,090 100 3 75 3 N/A* N/A* 80 32 74 1,041 85 1,137 91 82 82 289 100 2 86 152 86 461 78 11,305 86 363 72 128 94 47 78 445 78 10,204 77 2,363 85 152 71 586 92 36 81 262 78 1,156 86 2,357 90 1,217 74 219 100 14 84 173 83 612 78 883 89 24 100 2 100 4 92 11 77 840 82 2,415 90 183 81 286 100 17 84 148 80 1,742 78 1,464 100 7 33 1 67 2 67 29 78 1,413 77 10,497 87 910 73 437 88 59 77 769 76 8,156 78 2,877 83 842 74 295 80 8 80 363 76 1,122 81 2,396 88 807 77 286 100 17 79 199 77 788 66 875 89 16 0 0 100 4 79 30 66 822 82 28 N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* 100 1 82 27 77 1,440 80 120 73 318 100 10 78 226 78 658 85 820 92 34 79 127 100 4 86 152 87 319 75 13,075 89 570 81 349 96 46 77 711 74 11,174 78 2,442 91 42 76 47 83 5 79 103 78 2,177 81 1,453 87 265 59 34 96 24 81 134 80 853 73 3,880 75 1,068 67 76 92 11 64 221 74 2,454 75 1,287 93 41 100 16 100 5 80 32 74 1,188 81 2,389 86 120 76 980 93 14 81 342 85 781 76 10,378 77 1,233 70 50 100 33 76 343 76 8,644 73 6,486 74 796 68 456 96 53 69 362 74 4,675 74 3,335 81 1,547 69 336 100 13 72 226 68 1,092 77 5,792 85 492 78 62 97 31 71 244 76 4,909 79 2,675 88 223 76 1,000 96 43 79 372 80 883 71 5,501 91 64 66 23 100 16 69 162 71 5,179 74 3,619 87 153 75 185 88 63 76 190 73 2,888 73 2,246 75 1,079 68 231 100 4 70 176 72 716 75 4,960 74 1,135 78 953 92 49 74 410 74 2,043 73 2,383 86 127 86 176 100 9 79 177 71 1,855 83 1,913 92 504 74 253 100 19 81 191 82 887 75 1,353 84 147 69 22 100 2 81 71 75 1,085 75 2,632 88 388 75 432 95 20 77 212 71 1,523 80 2,228 80 326 85 120 96 23 85 99 80 1,601 87 3,984 90 1,888 85 938 100 14 85 247 83 632 71 6,221 79 92 67 58 83 25 72 187 71 5,767 77 1,468 79 11 100 5 100 2 81 46 77 1,387 76 1,487 83 63 43 3 N/A* N/A* 71 35 76 1,365 74 1,772 81 21 63 5 75 3 76 58 74 1,671 78 1,743 78 47 78 21 100 7 81 50 78 1,611 72 4,223 83 71 52 11 92 11 74 109 72 3,981 72 6,466 79 332 73 345 96 27 71 360 71 5,342 75 2,504 80 43 100 6 100 2 81 44 75 2,397 74 2,567 81 479 74 278 100 17 70 315 73 1,388 77 6,960 84 229 72 65 90 35 73 313 76 6,250 76 2,559 76 869 82 89 100 7 76 111 77 1,449 74 5,257 77 315 70 120 88 22 72 318 75 4,369 68 1,894 71 359 67 74 83 5 63 105 68 1,298 73 2,107 84 27 64 18 94 15 71 62 73 1,945 73 1,030 92 34 78 7 N/A* N/A* 77 51 73 927 68 1,460 82 122 76 52 90 9 61 59 67 1,183 71 1,161 78 254 70 117 100 5 63 109 70 646 82 3,191 86 1,779 73 324 95 18 77 265 79 728 83 1,313 78 7 100 3 N/A* N/A* 78 25 83 1,269 89 1,893 86 144 83 54 100 16 90 197 90 1,418 74 2,137 72 520 74 90 80 4 71 104 75 1,391 74 2,398 81 211 70 37 75 3 67 62 73 2,056 77 306 80 4 67 2 100 1 93 13 77 283 78 2,210 88 79 82 124 100 7 79 171 77 1,726 73 3,158 80 1,030 74 324 100 13 69 253 69 1,446 79 2,293 91 32 82 9 100 3 83 50 79 2,174 74 4,494 81 609 72 276 96 27 72 325 73 3,085 75 2,201 92 23 40 2 83 5 69 53 75 2,085 79 1,785 86 941 74 143 100 1 71 150 70 460 77 2,041 81 236 78 42 100 6 76 176 76 1,546 73 4,070 82 53 71 15 84 16 73 105 73 3,853 73 2,280 87 97 69 35 100 12 75 121 72 1,986 79 1,271 82 49 80 8 100 2 76 25 79 1,169 79 2,044 81 262 74 68 92 11 79 138 79 1,533 79 1,661 88 128 82 75 83 10 75 97 79 1,311 80 2,522 89 154 76 1,065 90 35 79 272 84 761 74 1,512 76 19 55 6 100 5 62 26 74 1,448 75 7,109 77 299 78 57 92 22 73 222 75 6,461 77 2,571 85 196 59 27 89 16 77 149 77 2,138 80 1,932 83 99 79 27 100 11 80 44 80 1,737 71 2,187 71 348 75 76 94 16 66 101 71 1,619 71 5,495 86 125 62 38 100 9 72 323 71 4,893 79 2,514 83 119 85 23 85 11 78 39 79 2,313 80 9,675 84 730 74 142 95 53 79 566 79 8,005 83 1,902 95 407 82 146 96 27 84 185 80 1,090 75 2,085 86 258 83 74 89 8 70 109 74 1,614 76 2,122 75 253 77 48 83 10 77 95 76 1,685 76 1,700 80 101 73 61 100 7 80 100 76 1,425 78 1,840 88 107 86 318 100 16 75 104 75 1,238 74 1,032 81 13 67 2 100 5 80 35 74 969 82 2,665 83 1,722 78 277 95 18 76 155 82 380 83 2,433 87 369 78 97 97 37 83 172 82 1,665 72 2,772 71 120 79 37 82 9 78 100 72 2,483 74 2,662 81 698 72 134 95 18 77 173 72 1,604 81 2,617 84 739 76 488 95 35 82 287 81 977 81 1,961 86 375 73 435 100 11 79 247 84 817 81 2,028 90 64 64 9 92 11 79 54 80 1,870 77 4,657 88 300 70 59 100 18 76 211 76 4,011 73 1,292 87 58 65 13 75 6 79 72 72 1,126 73 6,410 84 356 62 87 90 19 79 326 72 5,512 84 1,199 84 190 82 198 100 26 85 133 85 307 81 2,893 91 50 68 25 92 11 79 64 81 2,713 73 3,788 86 68 66 39 100 9 73 131 73 3,450 79 1,193 78 182 71 10 100 7 78 98 79 867 71 2,674 83 95 82 14 100 17 72 84 71 2,445 81 1,608 92 253 74 48 100 20 76 95 80 1,174 76 2,451 84 629 72 298 100 7 70 265 73 1,213 72 4,482 71 171 62 16 100 10 72 162 72 4,076 77 1,461 85 34 75 9 100 9 69 36 77 1,353

### Summary of Maths results for 10 to 11 year olds By ethnicity and area Summary

Figures broken down by ethnicity and local authority are often based on small numbers of pupils. As a result, they are likely to change from year to year. The Isle of Scilly had 28 pupils in year 6, and the City of London had 29. Please treat the results for these 2 local authorities with particular caution.

The data shows that:

• in 2017/18, 89% of pupils in Richmond Upon Thames met the expected standard in maths, the highest percentage out of all local authorities
• 60% of pupils in Bedford met the expected standard, the lowest percentage out of all local authorities

## 5. Methodology

The key stage 2 datasets combine information from the following two data sources:

• prior attainment records (key stage 1 results)
• school census records

Key stage 2 data received from the Standard Testing Agency (STA) is matched to school census records to identify pupils’ ethnicities and free school meal eligibility.

Pupils who do not have a valid result for a subject are excluded from the calculations for that subject and do not appear in the number of eligible pupils or the outcome percentages for that subject.

Valid results are:

• achieved the expected standard
• not achieved the expected standard
• special consideration
• absent
• working below the standard of the test
• unable to access the test

The Department for Education no longer suppress any of the data used in this page.

Confidence intervals:

Confidence intervals are available for the ‘progress score’ if you download the data. These confidence intervals are calculated for a school based on a specific group of pupils. A school may have been just as effective, but have performed differently with a different set of pupils. Similarly, some pupils may be more likely to achieve high or low results, independently of which school they attend. To account for this natural uncertainty, it is best to interpret these school scores alongside their associated confidence intervals.

A 95% confidence interval around progress scores means that if the progress scores of 100 random schools were taken, then 95 times out of 100 their progress score would fall between the upper and lower confidence interval. But 5 times out of 100 it would fall outside this range.

School scores are interpreted alongside their associated confidence intervals in the following manner: If the lower confidence interval is greater than zero, it can be interpreted as meaning that the school has achieved greater than average progress compared to pupils with similar starting points nationally. Similarly, if the upper confidence interval is below zero, then the school has made less than average progress. Where the 95% confidence intervals overlap zero, this means that the school’s progress score is not significantly different from the national average.

### Rounding

Percentages given in charts, tables and downloads are rounded to the nearest whole number. Progress scores are given to 1 decimal place.

### Related publications

Schools, pupils and their characteristics: January 2018

Quality and methodology information

## 6. Data sources

### Type of statistic

National Statistics

### Publisher

Department for Education

Yearly

### Purpose of data source

The main purpose is to measure schools' and pupils' progress and performance from key stage 1 to key stage 2, in order to monitor and improve standards and inform parental choice when applying to local schools.