Maths attainment for children aged 10 to 11 (key stage 2)

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1. Main facts and figures

  • in 2017/18, 76% of pupils met the expected standard in maths by the end of key stage 2 (when they are usually 10 or 11 years old)
  • 24% of pupils met the higher standard
  • out of all ethnic groups, pupils from the Chinese group were the most likely to meet both the expected and higher standards
  • pupils from the Chinese ethnic group also made the most progress between key stage 1 and key stage 2
  • White Gypsy/Roma pupils were the least likely to meet the expected standard
  • pupils from the White Gypsy/Roma and White Irish Traveller groups were the least likely to meet the higher standard
  • Black Caribbean, and Mixed White and Black Caribbean, pupils made the least progress between key stage 1 and key stage 2
  • in most ethnic groups, a higher percentage of boys than girls met the higher standard
Things you need to know

In 2017/18, there were 619,573 pupils taking key stage 2 maths at state-funded schools in England, and ethnicity was known for 614,010 (99%) of them.

Of those whose ethnicity was known, 75% were White, 11% were Asian, 6% were Black, 6% were Mixed, 0.4% were Chinese and 2% were from another ethnic group.

Pupil numbers for key stage 2 vary between measures of attainment for different subjects. This is because pupils who don't have a valid result for a particular subject are excluded from the total. For more about valid results, see the Methodology section.

Previous versions of this page included attainment figures broken down by local authority area. The 2017/18 figures for local authorities will be added as soon as they are available.

What the data measures

This data measures the maths attainment of pupils at the end of key stage 2 when children are usually 10 or 11 years old.

The data covers the academic year 2017/18 (September 2017 to July 2018). Download the data if you want data for the academic year 2015/16 and 2016/17.

Standards in maths are divided into 2 categories:

  • expected standard – to meet this, pupils must have achieved a ‘scaled score’ of 100 or more
  • higher standard (sometimes called the ‘high score’) – to meet this, pupils must have achieved a ‘scaled score’ of 110 or more

For each ethnic group, there are also figures for:

  • average scaled score
  • progress score

The average scaled score measures the average attainment of pupils in key stage 2 maths tests. Results range from 80 to 120. A scaled score allows for variations in test difficulty year on year by standardising each pupil’s test results. This allows a clearer comparison between years. You can read more about scaled scores at key stage 2.

The progress score measures the progress that pupils make between the end of key stage 1 (primary school year 2) and the end of key stage 2 (year 6). A pupil’s results are compared with the actual achievements of other pupils nationally with similar key stage 1 attainment.

This data shows an average progress score for each ethnic group. A progress score of 0 (the national average) means pupils are making the expected amount of progress. A positive score (0.1 and above) means they are making more progress than average, and a negative score (-0.1 and below) less progress than average.

The ethnic categories used in this data

This data uses categories from the Department for Education’s school census. These groupings are broadly based on the 2001 national Census, with 3 exceptions:

  • Traveller of Irish Heritage and Gypsy/Roma children have been separated into 2 categories
  • Sri Lankan is included in the Asian/Asian British group but is not reported separately
  • Chinese pupils have been assigned a separate category from Asian

These changes were made after consultations with local authorities and lobby groups.

Data is reported for broad and detailed ethnic categories. These are

Asian/Asian British:

  • Indian
  • Pakistani
  • Bangladeshi
  • Sri Lankan
  • Other Asian background

Black/African/Caribbean/Black British:

  • Black African
  • Black Caribbean
  • Black Other

Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups:

  • White and Black Caribbean
  • White and Black African
  • White and Asian
  • Other Mixed background

White:

  • White British
  • White Irish
  • Traveller of Irish Heritage
  • Gypsy/Roma
  • Other White

Chinese

Other ethnic group

2. By ethnicity

Percentage of pupils meeting the expected and higher standards in maths, and average scaled score and progress score, by ethnicity
Ethnicity Expected standard Higher standard Average scaled Progress score
All 76 24 104 0.0
Asian 81 32 106 1.9
Bangladeshi 81 30 106 2.0
Indian 87 44 108 2.6
Pakistani 75 23 104 1.1
Asian other 85 40 107 2.8
Black 75 21 104 0.3
Black African 78 24 105 0.9
Black Caribbean 66 13 102 -1.3
Black other 72 18 103 0.0
Chinese 94 61 111 4.7
Mixed 75 24 104 0.0
Mixed White/Asian 81 33 106 0.7
Mixed White/Black African 76 22 104 -0.1
Mixed White/Black Caribbean 67 15 102 -1.3
Mixed other 78 27 105 0.6
White 75 22 104 -0.3
White British 75 22 104 -0.5
White Irish 78 28 105 0.3
Gypsy/Roma 30 3 96 -0.7
Irish Traveller 33 3 96 -1.1
White other 76 25 105 2.2
Other 76 26 105 2.3
Unknown 64 19 104 -0.2

Download table data for ‘By ethnicity’ (CSV) Source data for ‘By ethnicity’ (CSV)

Summary of Maths attainment for children aged 10 to 11 (key stage 2) By ethnicity Summary

The data shows that:

  • overall in 2017/18, 76% of pupils met the expected standard in maths by the end of key stage 2 (when they are usually 10 or 11 years old), and 24% met the higher standard
  • pupils from the Chinese ethnic group had the highest attainment out of all ethnic groups, with 94% meeting the expected standard and 61% meeting the higher standard
  • White Gypsy/Roma pupils had the lowest attainment, with 30% meeting the expected standard; 3% of both White Gypsy/Roma and White Irish Traveller pupils met the higher standard, and White Gypsy/Roma pupils had the lowest average scaled score (96)
  • Chinese pupils had the highest average scaled score (111), and made the most progress between key stage 1 and key stage 2 (with a progress score of 4.7)
  • Black Caribbean and Mixed White and Black Caribbean pupils made the least progress in maths between key stage 1 and key stage 2, with a progress score of -1.3

3. By ethnicity and gender

Percentage of pupils meeting the expected and higher standards in maths, and average scaled score and progress score, by ethnicity and gender
Boys Girls
Ethnicity Boys Expected standard Boys Higher standard Boys average scaled Boys Progress score Girls Expected standard Girls Higher standard Girls average scaled Girls Progress score
All 75 26 105 0.7 76 22 104 -0.7
Asian 81 35 106 2.7 81 30 106 1.1
Bangladeshi 81 33 106 2.9 81 27 105 1.1
Indian 87 45 108 3.4 88 42 108 1.8
Pakistani 75 25 105 1.8 75 20 104 0.3
Asian other 84 42 108 3.5 85 39 107 2.1
Black 73 21 104 0.7 77 20 104 -0.1
Black African 76 25 105 1.3 79 23 105 0.4
Black Caribbean 63 12 102 -1.0 69 13 102 -1.6
Black other 69 18 103 0.2 75 18 104 -0.3
Chinese 92 62 111 5.3 95 60 111 4.1
Mixed 75 26 105 0.6 76 23 104 -0.7
Mixed White/Asian 81 35 106 1.4 81 30 106 0.0
Mixed White/Black African 75 23 104 0.4 77 20 104 -0.8
Mixed White/Black Caribbean 66 15 102 -0.8 68 15 102 -1.9
Mixed other 77 29 105 1.2 78 26 105 -0.1
White 75 24 104 0.3 75 20 104 -1.0
White British 75 24 104 0.2 75 20 104 -1.2
White Irish 77 29 106 0.8 79 26 105 -0.2
Gypsy/Roma 30 3 96 -0.2 30 2 95 -1.2
Irish Traveller 35 4 97 -0.1 31 2 95 -2.1
White other 76 28 105 3.0 76 23 104 1.4
Other 77 29 106 3.2 75 23 105 1.4
Unknown 63 21 104 0.4 65 17 103 -0.8

Download table data for ‘By ethnicity and gender’ (CSV) Source data for ‘By ethnicity and gender’ (CSV)

Summary of Maths attainment for children aged 10 to 11 (key stage 2) By ethnicity and gender Summary

This data shows that:

  • overall, in 2017/18, 76% of girls and 75% of boys met the expected standard in maths by the end of key stage 2 (when they are usually 10 or 11 years old); 26% of boys and 22% of girls met the higher standard
  • girls from the Chinese ethnic group had the highest attainment of all of the ethnic groups across boys and girls, with 95% meeting the expected standard; Chinese boys were most likely to meet the higher standard, with 62%
  • White Gypsy/Roma girls and boys had the lowest attainment, with 30% of each gender meeting the expected standard; White Irish Traveller and White Gypsy/Roma girls had the lowest average scaled score (95), and girls from the White Irish Traveller and White Gypsy/Roma groups were least likely to meet the higher standard (at 2% each)
  • boys from the Chinese ethnic group made the most progress in maths between key stage 1 and key stage 2, with a progress score of 5.3 points; they also had the highest average scaled score (111), compared with an overall average of 104
  • girls from the White Irish Traveller group made the least progress in maths between key stage 1 and key stage 2, with a progress score of -2.1

4. Methodology

The key stage 2 datasets combine information from the following two data sources:

  • prior attainment records (key stage 1 results)
  • school census records

Key stage 2 data received from the Standard Testing Agency (STA) is matched to school census records to identify pupils’ ethnicities and free school meal eligibility.

Pupils who do not have a valid result for a subject are excluded from the calculations for that subject and do not appear in the number of eligible pupils or the outcome percentages for that subject.

Valid results are:

  • achieved the expected standard
  • not achieved the expected standard
  • special consideration
  • absent
  • working below the standard of the test
  • unable to access the test

The Department for Education no longer suppress any of the data used in this page.

Confidence intervals:

Confidence intervals are available for the ‘progress score’ if you download the data. These confidence intervals are calculated for a school based on a specific group of pupils. A school may have been just as effective, but have performed differently with a different set of pupils. Similarly, some pupils may be more likely to achieve high or low results, independently of which school they attend. To account for this natural uncertainty, it is best to interpret these school scores alongside their associated confidence intervals.

A 95% confidence interval around progress scores means that if the progress scores of 100 random schools were taken, then 95 times out of 100 their progress score would fall between the upper and lower confidence interval. But 5 times out of 100 it would fall outside this range.

School scores are interpreted alongside their associated confidence intervals in the following manner: If the lower confidence interval is greater than zero, it can be interpreted as meaning that the school has achieved greater than average progress compared to pupils with similar starting points nationally. Similarly, if the upper confidence interval is below zero, then the school has made less than average progress. Where the 95% confidence intervals overlap zero, this means that the school’s progress score is not significantly different from the national average.

Rounding

Percentages given in charts, tables and downloads are rounded to the nearest whole number. Progress scores are given to 1 decimal place.

Related publications

Schools, pupils and their characteristics: January 2018

Quality and methodology information

5. Data sources

Source

Type of data

Administrative data

Type of statistic

National Statistics

Publisher

Department for Education

Publication frequency

Yearly

Purpose of data source

The main purpose is to measure schools' and pupils' progress and performance from key stage 1 to key stage 2, in order to monitor and improve standards and inform parental choice when applying to local schools.

6. Download the data