Average hourly pay
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1. Main facts and figures
in the last 3 months of 2016, the average (mean) hourly pay for all employees was £13.69
in the last 3 months of 2016, the average hourly pay for White employees was £13.75, while the average hourly pay for employees from other ethnic groups was £13.18
Indian employees earned the highest average hourly pay (£15.81), while Pakistani/Bangladeshi employees earned the lowest average hourly pay (£11.42)
on average, employees from Mixed and Indian backgrounds earned more than White employees, whereas Pakistani/Bangladeshi, Black, and Other ethnicity employees earned less
The ethnic categories used in this data
The analysis uses the following broad ethnic categories, based on the 2001 Census:
- Black/Black British
- Other (which includes Chinese, Other Asian and other ethnic groups)
2. Average hourly pay by ethnicity
|Ethnicity||Jan-Mar 2013||Apr-Jun 2013||Jul-Sep 2013||Oct-Dec 2013||Jan-Mar 2014||Apr-Jun 2014||Jul-Sep 2014||Oct-Dec 2014||Jan-Mar 2015||Apr-Jun 2015||Jul-Sep 2015||Oct-Dec 2015||Jan-Mar 2016||Apr-Jun 2016||Jul-Sep 2016||Oct-Dec 2016|
|Ethnic minorities (excluding White minorities)||12.84||12.67||12.69||12.43||12.81||12.26||13.41||12.65||12.56||12.79||12.89||13.61||13.60||13.86||13.33||13.18|
Summary of Average hourly pay Average hourly pay by ethnicity Summary
The data gives estimates of earnings based on the Labour Force Survey (LFS), which are published by the Office for National Statistics.
This analysis uses the ‘mean’ average to report hourly pay. The mean is worked out by adding up the hourly pay of all respondents and dividing by the number of respondents.
The choice of the 'mean' as a measure of average hourly pay is affected by extreme measures which may not reflect some of the lower paid people in each ethnic group. ONS has taken steps to reduce this impact particularly where values over £100 may have been given in error. The alternative was to use the 'median', but this would have been unreliable for ethnic groups where there were small numbers of respondents. (For each ethnic group, if every respondent was lined up in the order of their hourly pay, the median would be the hourly pay of the person in the middle.)
The data on employees’ earnings captured by the LFS is thought to be of a lower quality than other sources, such as the Annual Survey of Hours and Earning (ASHE) and the Average Weekly Earnings (AWE) survey. This is because employees or proxies report the information themselves rather than employers. However, this analysis uses LFS because neither ASHE nor AWE collect data on employees’ ethnicity.
The LFS has been held continuously since 1992. It is designed to produce nationally representative results for any 3-month period.
Each 3-monthly sample in the LFS is made up of 5 waves. The sample consists of approximately 40,000 UK households and 100,000 individuals per quarter. Respondents are interviewed for 5 successive waves at 3-monthly intervals and 20% of the sample is replaced every quarter. Respondents are only asked about their pay in the first and last of these interviews. The response rate for October to December 2016 was 42%.
All surveys carry the risk of biased results if some types of people were less likely to respond than others. To compensate for this, the responses to this survey have been weighted so they better reflect characteristics of the target population. The weighting scheme was designed so that the sample reflects the target population's age and sex profile, as well as its geographic spread (region and local authority).
Suppression rules and disclosure control
Sample sizes of less than 30 have been fully suppressed. Results in excess of £100 an hour have been excluded as a quality assurance measure.
Figures have been rounded to the nearest pence.
Further technical information
The data on individual’s earnings captured by the LFS is thought to be of a lower quality than ASHE or AWE as LFS information is self-reported by employees. ASHE and AWE however, gather information from the employer which is thought to be more accurate as employers can consult payroll records. Individuals may not have such records to hand and their responses may therefore be subject to higher levels of recall error. Furthermore LFS responses can be given by proxy (by other individuals in the same household) when an individual is unavailable for interview. This gives further scope for recall error from respondents. Due to this recall error, estimates of earnings based on the LFS that are published by the ONS excluding those who earn more than £100 per hour as a quality assurance measure. These factors combined mean that gross weekly and hourly pay are known to be underestimated on the LFS.
4. Data sources
Type of data
Type of statistic
Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy
Purpose of data source
The Labour Force Survey (LFS) measures all aspects of people's work, including the education and training needed to equip them for work, the jobs themselves, job search for those out of work, and income from work and benefits.
The primary purpose of the LFS is to provide good quality point in time and change estimates for various labour market outputs and related topics.
5. Download the data
Time, ethnicity, denominator (weighted and unweighted)