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Reading attainments for children aged 5 to 7 (key stage 1)

The main facts and figures show that:

  • in 2015/16, there were 641,593 pupils at the end of year 1, of which ethnicity was known for 634,052 (99%)

  • 75% were White, 11% were Asian, 6% were Black, 6% were Mixed, 2% were from the Other ethnic group and 0.5% were Chinese

  • overall, 74% of pupils met the expected standard and 24% of pupils met the higher standard in reading (making these figures the national averages)

  • Indian pupils were most likely to meet the expected standard and Gypsy/Roma pupils pupils were least likely to meet the expected standard

  • Mixed White and Asian and Chinese pupils were most likely to meet the higher standard and Gypsy/Roma were least likely to meet the higher standard

  • across all ethnic groups, a higher percentage of girls than boys met both the expected and higher standard

  • within every ethnic group, pupils not eligible for free school meals (FSM) did better than those who were eligible - except Gypsy/Roma and White Irish Traveller pupils

Things you need to know

The 2016 key stage 1 assessments are the first which assess the new, more challenging national curriculum. The expected standard has also been raised to be higher than the old level 2. As a result, figures for 2016 are not comparable to those for earlier years.

Teacher assessments for year 2 pupils studying the national curriculum are collected and reported by the Department for Education (DfE), but test results for those pupils are not collected.

School level data is not published for key stage 1.

Results for the Isles of Scilly and the City of London, which have only one school each, have been excluded from local authority breakdowns. This is because the very small number of pupils in these local authorities make the results unreliable.

The Department for Education (DfE) has also excluded, or ‘suppressed’, very small numbers (for example, values of 1 or 2, a percentage based on 1 or 2 pupils who achieved, or 0, 1 or 2 pupils who did not achieve a particular standard).

This is because, where the size of the ethnic group population is small enough that an individual’s identity could be revealed, information is suppressed to preserve confidentiality. This is consistent with DfE’s statistical policy statement on confidentiality .

Pupil numbers for key stage 1 vary between measures of attainment for different subjects. This is because pupils who don't have a valid teacher assessment for a particular subject are excluded from the total. For more about valid teacher assessments, see Methodology.

What the data measures

This data measures the reading attainments of children in key stage 1 (years 1 to 2, when pupils are aged between 5 and 7).

The data covers the academic year 2015/16 (September 2015 to July 2016).

The data was collected from 16,337 state-funded mainstream schools (about 650,000 pupils) in England.

The standards for this measure are divided in 2 categories:

  • expected standard
  • higher standard

To reach the expected standard, pupils must have been assessed by a teacher as 'working at the expected standard' or 'working at a greater depth within the expected standard' in their reading.

To reach the higher standard, pupils must have have been assessed by a teacher as 'working at a greater depth within the expected standard' in their reading.

The ethnic categories used in this data

This data uses categories from the Department for Education’s school census, which is broadly based on the 2001 national census, with 2 exceptions:

  • Traveller of Irish Heritage and Gypsy/Roma children have been separated into 2 categories
  • Sri Lankan has been added to the Asian/Asian British group but is not reported separately
  • Chinese pupils have been assigned a separate category

These changes were made after consultations with local authorities and lobby groups.

The categories in the school census are as follows:

White:

  • White British
  • White Irish
  • Traveller of Irish Heritage
  • Gypsy/Roma
  • Other White

Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups:

  • White and Black Caribbean
  • White and Black African
  • White and Asian
  • Other Mixed background

Asian/Asian British:

  • Indian
  • Pakistani
  • Bangladeshi
  • Sri Lankan
  • Other Asian background

Black/African/Caribbean/Black British:

  • Black African
  • Black Caribbean
  • Other Black background

  • Chinese

  • Other ethnic group

Information is provided for both detailed and broad ethnic groups where possible and when the data is available.

The 6 broad categories used are as follows:

  • White
  • Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups
  • Asian/Asian British
  • Black/African/Caribbean/Black British
  • Other ethnic group
  • Chinese

However, local authority data is only provided for 5 broad ethnic groups. Information about the specific ethnic categories is excluded to preserve confidentiality and ensure individuals cannot be identified. Information about the Other ethnic group is not given because DfE does not publish data for this group at the local authority level.

The 5 broad categories are as follows:

  • White
  • Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups
  • Asian/Asian British
  • Black/African/Caribbean/Black British
  • Chinese

Ethnic groups and how data on ethnicity is collected

Reading attainments for children aged 5 to 7 by ethnicity

Percentage of pupils meeting the expected and higher standard in reading by ethnicity

Ethnicity Expected standard Higher standard
All 74 24
Asian 76 23
Bangladeshi 75 22
Indian 83 31
Pakistani 71 17
Asian other 77 25
Black 76 22
Black African 77 23
Black Caribbean 73 18
Black other 73 20
Chinese 80 32
Mixed 76 26
Mixed White/Asian 81 32
Mixed White/Black African 77 25
Mixed White/Black Caribbean 71 20
Mixed other 77 27
White 74 24
White British 75 24
White Irish 77 30
White Irish Traveller 32 4
White Gypsy/Roma 26 3
White other 67 19
Other 68 18

Summary

The data shows that:

  • 83% of Indian pupils met the expected standard (the highest percentage of any ethnic group)

  • 26% of pupils from the Gypsy/Roma pupils met the expected standard (a lower percentage than any of the other ethnic groups)

  • 24% of White British pupils met the higher standard

  • 32% of pupils from the Chinese and Mixed White and Asian ethnic groups met the higher standard (a higher percentage than any of the other ethnic groups)

  • 3% of Gypsy/Roma pupils met the higher standard (the lowest percentage of any ethnic group)

Reading attainments for children aged 5 to 7 by ethnicity and eligibility for free school meals (FSM)

Percentage of pupils meeting the expected standard in reading by ethnicity and eligibility for free school meals

Ethnicity FSM Non-FSM
All 60 77
Asian 67 77
Bangladeshi 71 76
Indian 73 83
Pakistani 65 72
Asian other 67 79
Black 70 78
Black African 71 79
Black Caribbean 67 75
Black other 67 75
Chinese 75 80
Mixed 65 79
Mixed White/Asian 66 84
Mixed White/Black African 68 80
Mixed White/Black Caribbean 63 75
Mixed other 67 79
White 56 77
White British 57 78
White Irish 57 81
White Irish Traveller 32 32
White Gypsy/Roma 28 25
White other 57 68
Other 63 69

Summary

Eligibility for FSM is used as an indicator of deprivation by the Department for Education. For more about who qualifies for FSM, see Methodology.

The data shows that:

  • in 2015/2016 there were 97,397 pupils eligible for free school meals in key stage 1 (15% of all pupils)

  • overall, 60% of pupils eligible for FSM met the expected standard, compared to 77% of pupils not eligible for FSM (a gap of 17 percentage points)

  • 57% of FSM-eligible White British pupils met the expected standard (below the national average for FSM), compared to 78% of White British pupils not eligible (a gap of 21 percentage points)

  • FSM-eligible pupils did less well than those not eligible in every ethnic group apart from Gypsy/Roma: here, 28% of FSM-eligible pupils met the expected standard compared to 25% of those not eligible

  • for pupils from a Traveller of Irish Heritage background, an equal percentage of FSM eligible and non-eligible pupils (32%) met the expected standard

  • 75% of FSM-eligible Chinese pupils met the expected standard (the highest percentage of any ethnic group)

Reading attainments for children aged 5 to 7 by ethnicity and area

Percentage of pupils reaching the expected standard in reading by ethnicity and local authority

Local Authority All Asian Black Chinese Mixed White
County Durham 75 89 67 73 77 75
Darlington 75 71 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 78 75
Gateshead 77 74 77 75 73 77
Hartlepool 73 71 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 69 73
Middlesbrough 67 68 84 withheld to protect confidentiality 64 68
Newcastle upon Tyne 73 74 73 85 81 74
North Tyneside 76 81 83 60 83 76
Northumberland 78 90 withheld to protect confidentiality 69 76 78
Redcar and Cleveland 77 60 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 73 77
South Tyneside 78 84 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 69 79
Stockton-on-Tees 76 82 83 100 67 76
Sunderland 75 72 withheld to protect confidentiality 77 77 76
Blackburn with Darwen 74 75 74 100 68 75
Blackpool 74 65 100 50 84 74
Bolton 71 75 64 withheld to protect confidentiality 72 72
Bury 72 74 63 100 65 73
Cheshire East 75 73 73 73 78 75
Cheshire West and Chester 74 74 38 withheld to protect confidentiality 85 74
Cumbria 69 81 100 withheld to protect confidentiality 67 69
Halton 67 100 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 73 67
Knowsley 68 91 withheld to protect confidentiality 100 73 67
Lancashire 74 73 73 76 73 74
Liverpool 64 66 70 67 63 64
Manchester 70 68 73 82 75 71
Oldham 67 65 56 76 74 70
Rochdale 71 71 68 withheld to protect confidentiality 77 71
Salford 74 77 73 withheld to protect confidentiality 74 76
Sefton 70 74 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 70 71
St. Helens 68 58 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 70 68
Stockport 76 77 75 75 76 76
Tameside 70 66 75 40 73 71
Trafford 79 79 85 79 76 79
Warrington 76 76 81 withheld to protect confidentiality 83 76
Wigan 74 72 74 75 80 74
Wirral 71 78 33 57 77 71
Barnsley 70 59 83 withheld to protect confidentiality 81 70
Bradford 70 72 66 withheld to protect confidentiality 70 69
Calderdale 66 58 72 57 69 68
Doncaster 70 69 71 63 74 70
East Riding of Yorkshire 76 88 withheld to protect confidentiality 100 83 75
Kingston upon Hull, City of 72 79 67 withheld to protect confidentiality 80 72
Kirklees 71 70 72 63 71 72
Leeds 65 64 62 66 61 67
North East Lincolnshire 72 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 76 72
North Lincolnshire 78 82 50 withheld to protect confidentiality 75 78
North Yorkshire 72 79 60 76 72 72
Rotherham 71 75 67 withheld to protect confidentiality 71 71
Sheffield 71 72 75 82 72 72
Wakefield 72 66 72 79 77 72
York 74 74 withheld to protect confidentiality 57 72 75
Derby 66 72 70 70 69 64
Derbyshire 75 83 74 73 77 74
Leicester 67 73 70 withheld to protect confidentiality 68 60
Leicestershire 73 80 76 69 77 73
Lincolnshire 73 88 75 82 77 73
Northamptonshire 73 78 73 86 72 73
Nottingham 66 72 74 76 68 64
Nottinghamshire 72 70 69 71 74 72
Rutland 80 100 57 withheld to protect confidentiality 75 81
Birmingham 70 71 71 83 70 69
Coventry 70 78 72 79 72 67
Dudley 74 74 85 withheld to protect confidentiality 81 74
Herefordshire, County of 75 70 100 withheld to protect confidentiality 91 75
Sandwell 68 74 73 55 69 66
Shropshire 73 84 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 79 73
Solihull 79 81 76 withheld to protect confidentiality 79 79
Staffordshire 77 80 67 79 80 77
Stoke-on-Trent 70 71 74 70 74 70
Telford and Wrekin 77 72 84 100 80 77
Walsall 72 76 81 withheld to protect confidentiality 75 71
Warwickshire 76 82 70 withheld to protect confidentiality 77 76
Wolverhampton 71 75 79 67 73 68
Worcestershire 73 66 70 67 73 73
Bedford 72 70 76 100 69 73
Cambridgeshire 73 73 71 83 78 73
Central Bedfordshire 77 85 85 withheld to protect confidentiality 75 77
Essex 77 84 80 84 78 77
Hertfordshire 79 80 79 92 82 79
Luton 70 71 74 58 78 69
Norfolk 75 83 76 83 77 75
Peterborough 68 69 76 withheld to protect confidentiality 73 68
Southend-on-Sea 77 80 77 71 72 77
Suffolk 72 80 75 100 74 72
Thurrock 76 81 84 80 80 74
Camden 75 72 73 65 76 78
City of London withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality
Hackney 81 85 80 83 87 81
Hammersmith and Fulham 78 84 75 100 76 81
Haringey 78 83 79 90 82 76
Islington 75 73 71 withheld to protect confidentiality 81 77
Kensington and Chelsea 81 86 81 withheld to protect confidentiality 81 85
Lambeth 78 78 77 83 82 78
Lewisham 79 79 77 76 83 79
Newham 79 83 81 81 86 70
Southwark 77 82 77 78 76 78
Tower Hamlets 76 76 78 88 80 72
Wandsworth 81 82 75 84 78 85
Westminster 77 79 81 withheld to protect confidentiality 83 81
Barking and Dagenham 75 80 81 81 78 69
Barnet 77 82 75 84 76 78
Bexley 81 91 89 withheld to protect confidentiality 82 78
Brent 75 79 74 withheld to protect confidentiality 83 73
Bromley 80 90 86 89 82 79
Croydon 76 84 75 withheld to protect confidentiality 76 75
Ealing 72 72 68 100 78 75
Enfield 73 85 73 77 79 70
Greenwich 81 89 85 83 80 76
Harrow 77 84 75 withheld to protect confidentiality 79 68
Havering 77 82 82 79 82 76
Hillingdon 75 80 75 63 76 72
Hounslow 79 85 78 85 84 75
Kingston upon Thames 76 78 69 86 75 75
Merton 74 77 77 83 70 74
Redbridge 77 83 72 82 79 72
Richmond upon Thames 79 78 73 withheld to protect confidentiality 82 79
Sutton 78 86 77 91 82 75
Waltham Forest 79 81 80 82 84 77
Bracknell Forest 77 94 76 withheld to protect confidentiality 86 75
Brighton and Hove 75 76 69 withheld to protect confidentiality 77 75
Buckinghamshire 77 72 80 76 78 78
East Sussex 76 81 81 withheld to protect confidentiality 75 76
Hampshire 80 82 84 81 82 80
Isle of Wight 75 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 77 75
Kent 78 83 82 78 83 78
Medway 75 81 87 100 80 74
Milton Keynes 75 80 79 85 80 74
Oxfordshire 74 70 77 85 76 74
Portsmouth 73 71 72 100 71 73
Reading 74 77 77 withheld to protect confidentiality 73 74
Slough 76 83 77 100 78 67
Southampton 75 80 76 85 79 74
Surrey 78 82 83 88 81 78
West Berkshire 75 84 withheld to protect confidentiality 100 86 74
West Sussex 69 75 61 81 74 69
Windsor and Maidenhead 80 78 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 78 81
Wokingham 80 86 83 withheld to protect confidentiality 84 79
Bath and North East Somerset 74 72 70 63 71 74
Bournemouth 72 68 84 71 76 73
Bristol, City of 71 68 64 withheld to protect confidentiality 68 74
Cornwall 74 85 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 77 74
Devon 73 77 57 withheld to protect confidentiality 73 73
Dorset 72 74 70 withheld to protect confidentiality 79 73
Gloucestershire 73 74 67 withheld to protect confidentiality 71 73
Isles of Scilly withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality
North Somerset 77 90 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 74 77
Plymouth 71 84 86 64 74 71
Poole 77 79 62 100 82 77
Somerset 75 80 57 75 75 75
South Gloucestershire 78 79 76 84 78 78
Swindon 71 75 73 withheld to protect confidentiality 75 71
Torbay 73 82 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 73 73
Wiltshire 73 79 78 79 79 73

Summary

The data shows that:

  • Asian pupils were most likely to meet the expected standard in Rutland in the East Midlands and Halton in the North West; they were least likely to meet it in St. Helens in the North West, and Calderdale in Yorkshire and the Humber

  • Black pupils were most likely to meet the expected standard in Blackpool and Cumbria in the North West, and Herefordshire in the West Midlands; they were least likely to meet it in Wirral in the North West

  • 100% of Chinese pupils met the expected standard in 15 local authorities; Chinese pupils were least likely to meet the expected standard in Tameside in the North West

  • Mixed pupils were most likely to meet the expected standard in Herefordshire in the West Midlands; they were least likely to meet it in Leeds in Yorkshire and the Humber

  • White pupils were most likely to meet the expected standard in Kensington and Chelsea and Wandsworth in London; they were least likely to meet it Leicester in the East Midlands

Reading attainments for children aged 5 to 7 by ethnicity and gender

Percentage of pupils meeting the expected and higher standard in reading by ethnicity and gender

Boys Girls
Ethnicity Expected standard Higher standard Expected standard Higher standard
All 70 20 78 27
Asian 72 19 80 26
Bangladeshi 71 19 79 25
Indian 79 27 86 36
Pakistani 67 14 75 20
Asian other 73 22 82 29
Black 71 18 81 26
Black African 73 20 82 27
Black Caribbean 68 15 78 21
Black other 68 17 78 24
Chinese 77 29 83 36
Mixed 72 23 81 30
Mixed White/Asian 77 28 85 36
Mixed White/Black African 73 22 80 28
Mixed White/Black Caribbean 66 16 76 23
Mixed other 72 24 82 31
White 70 20 78 27
White British 70 21 79 28
White Irish 72 26 82 35
White Irish Traveller 27 6 37 3
White Gypsy/Roma 21 2 30 4
White other 64 17 71 21
Other 64 15 72 20

Summary

The data shows that:

  • overall, girls did better than boys; 78% met the expected standard, compared to 70% of boys, and 27% met the higher standard, compared to 20% of boys

  • girls did better than boys within every ethnic group except for pupils from a Traveller of Irish Heritage background; here, 6% of boys met the higher standard, compared to 3% of girls

  • Indian girls were most likely to reach the expected standard, and Indian, Mixed White and Asian, and Chinese girls were most likely to reach the higher standard

  • 79% of White British girls met the expected standard, compared to 70% of White British boys, and 28% of White British girls met the higher standard, compared to 21% of boys

  • Gypsy/Roma boys were least likely to reach both the expected and the higher standard

  • for the expected standard, the smallest attainment gap between girls and boys, at 6 percentage points, was found among Chinese pupils, where 83% of girls met the expected standard, compared to 77% of boys

  • for the higher standard, the smallest attainment gap, at 2 percentage points, was found among Gypsy/Roma pupils, where 2% of boys met the higher standard, compared to 4% of girls

Reading attainment for children aged 5 to 7 by ethnicity, gender, and eligibility for free school meals (FSM)

Percentage of pupils meeting the expected standard in reading by ethnicity, gender and eligibility for free school meals

Ethnicity FSM Boys FSM Girls Non-FSM Boys Non-FSM Girls
All 54 65 73 81
Asian 63 72 73 81
Bangladeshi 66 75 72 80
Indian 70 77 80 87
Pakistani 60 70 68 76
Asian other 63 72 74 83
Black 64 76 74 82
Black African 66 77 75 84
Black Caribbean 59 74 72 79
Black other 61 73 71 80
Chinese 72 79 78 83
Mixed 59 71 76 83
Mixed White/Asian 60 72 80 87
Mixed White/Black African 62 73 77 83
Mixed White/Black Caribbean 56 70 71 79
Mixed other 61 72 75 84
White 51 62 73 81
White British 52 63 74 82
White Irish 52 63 76 86
White Irish Traveller 28 35 25 41
White Gypsy/Roma 20 35 22 28
White other 53 61 65 71
Other 57 69 66 73

Summary

Eligibility for FSM is used as an indicator of deprivation by the Department for Education. For more about who qualifies for FSM, see Methodology.

The data shows that:

  • in 2015/2016 there were 97,397 pupils eligible for free school meals in key stage 1 (15% of all pupils)

  • 20% of FSM-eligible Gypsy/Roma boys met the expected standard (the lowest percentage of any group of FSM-eligible children)

  • 79% of FSM-eligible Chinese girls met the expected standard (the highest percentage of any group of FSM-eligible children)

  • across all ethnic groups, FSM-eligible girls did better than FSM-eligible boys

Reading attainment for children aged 5 to 7 by ethnicity, gender and area

Percentage of pupils meeting the expected standard in reading by ethnicity, gender and area

All Asian Black Chinese Mixed White
Local authority Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls
Barking and Dagenham 71 79 77 83 77 86 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 71 84 66 72
Barnet 74 80 79 85 70 80 76 90 74 79 76 80
Barnsley 65 76 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 83 79 65 76
Bath and North East Somerset 70 78 77 69 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 67 76 71 78
Bedford 68 76 64 77 66 84 withheld to protect confidentiality 100 63 75 70 75
Bexley 79 83 88 93 89 89 100 withheld to protect confidentiality 79 86 75 81
Birmingham 65 74 67 76 67 75 75 92 64 77 64 74
Blackburn with Darwen 70 79 69 81 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 65 71 72 79
Blackpool 70 78 64 65 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 70 78
Bolton 67 76 72 79 62 65 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 69 75 67 77
Bournemouth 70 75 65 73 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 70 81 70 75
Bracknell Forest 74 80 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 74 77 withheld to protect confidentiality 100 87 86 72 79
Bradford 65 74 67 76 54 76 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 64 77 65 73
Brent 72 77 77 81 72 77 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 78 87 72 74
Brighton and Hove 71 78 79 73 60 79 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 76 77 72 79
Bristol, City of 67 76 65 71 58 70 withheld to protect confidentiality 100 64 72 69 78
Bromley 76 84 88 92 81 91 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 77 88 75 82
Buckinghamshire 73 80 70 74 76 84 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 76 81 74 81
Bury 68 77 72 76 60 67 100 100 45 81 68 78
Calderdale 62 71 53 64 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 61 78 63 73
Cambridgeshire 69 77 71 75 69 74 85 80 71 85 69 77
Camden 71 79 66 78 69 77 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 75 76 75 81
Central Bedfordshire 73 81 77 93 82 89 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 68 80 73 81
Cheshire East 70 80 79 65 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 76 80 70 80
Cheshire West and Chester 70 78 63 87 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 100 80 91 70 78
City of London withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality
Cornwall 69 78 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 73 83 69 78
County Durham 71 80 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 60 100 73 82 71 80
Coventry 65 74 72 83 65 79 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 65 77 64 70
Croydon 73 80 79 90 70 78 withheld to protect confidentiality 100 71 81 72 77
Cumbria 64 75 80 81 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 100 withheld to protect confidentiality 52 81 65 75
Darlington 71 79 65 76 withheld to protect confidentiality 100 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 71 79
Derby 61 70 69 76 62 79 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 61 77 60 68
Derbyshire 70 79 83 83 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 70 86 70 79
Devon 67 78 74 81 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 100 withheld to protect confidentiality 75 71 67 79
Doncaster 65 75 64 73 65 79 69 50 65 81 66 75
Dorset 68 77 70 80 100 50 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 68 88 68 77
Dudley 69 80 70 79 77 92 withheld to protect confidentiality 100 76 88 68 80
Ealing 68 75 67 77 64 71 100 100 73 83 71 78
East Riding of Yorkshire 70 81 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 80 86 70 81
East Sussex 71 80 79 83 53 100 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 70 81 72 80
Enfield 69 77 83 88 67 80 77 77 75 84 67 74
Essex 72 82 81 87 73 88 80 88 73 83 72 82
Gateshead 73 81 73 76 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 79 67 72 82
Gloucestershire 70 76 67 82 67 67 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 70 73 70 76
Greenwich 77 85 86 92 82 88 81 85 76 85 72 81
Hackney 77 85 85 85 75 85 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 84 89 78 85
Halton 61 72 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 79 67 61 72
Hammersmith and Fulham 75 81 81 85 72 79 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 72 80 78 83
Hampshire 77 84 81 82 78 89 77 85 78 85 77 84
Haringey 74 81 78 87 72 85 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 80 84 74 79
Harrow 72 83 79 89 66 84 withheld to protect confidentiality 100 80 78 61 75
Hartlepool 66 80 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 100 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 66 80
Havering 72 82 74 92 76 91 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 75 88 71 81
Herefordshire, County of 71 80 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 71 80
Hertfordshire 75 83 75 86 74 84 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 78 85 74 83
Hillingdon 70 80 73 88 69 80 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 71 81 67 76
Hounslow 77 82 82 88 74 82 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 83 85 72 78
Isle of Wight 72 79 withheld to protect confidentiality 100 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 73 78
Isles of Scilly withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality
Islington 73 77 67 78 69 73 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 80 83 75 80
Kensington and Chelsea 78 84 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 79 85 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 71 90 84 86
Kent 74 82 81 85 79 86 70 83 80 86 74 82
Kingston upon Hull, City of 68 76 82 75 67 67 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 78 82 67 76
Kingston upon Thames 72 79 79 77 63 75 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 76 74 70 81
Kirklees 67 76 66 75 61 82 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 63 79 68 77
Knowsley 63 74 83 100 100 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 100 65 80 62 73
Lambeth 74 82 75 82 73 82 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 78 86 75 81
Lancashire 69 78 71 74 57 88 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 68 77 69 79
Leeds 61 70 62 67 55 70 68 63 61 62 62 72
Leicester 63 71 70 76 64 76 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 60 76 56 65
Leicestershire 69 78 79 81 59 89 58 76 78 76 68 78
Lewisham 75 82 78 81 72 82 74 78 82 84 76 82
Lincolnshire 67 78 86 89 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 64 100 72 82 67 78
Liverpool 58 69 62 69 67 73 55 83 52 74 59 70
Luton 65 75 65 78 71 77 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 76 80 64 74
Manchester 66 74 64 73 68 80 78 87 73 78 68 73
Medway 72 79 86 75 82 91 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 78 82 71 78
Merton 71 78 76 78 71 83 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 66 74 71 77
Middlesbrough 63 72 59 80 81 86 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 60 68 65 71
Milton Keynes 72 79 75 84 76 82 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 74 85 70 78
Newcastle upon Tyne 70 77 67 80 69 77 71 100 77 86 71 77
Newham 75 83 79 87 77 85 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 84 89 66 73
Norfolk 69 80 77 88 76 77 84 82 74 79 69 80
North East Lincolnshire 68 77 withheld to protect confidentiality 100 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 74 80 67 77
North Lincolnshire 74 82 74 92 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 74 82
North Somerset 73 81 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 100 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 72 77 73 81
North Tyneside 73 80 74 88 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 78 86 73 80
North Yorkshire 68 77 70 90 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 69 75 68 77
Northamptonshire 69 77 74 82 65 80 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 68 78 69 77
Northumberland 74 84 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 100 50 77 76 73 84
Nottingham 62 71 69 76 68 81 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 63 74 60 68
Nottinghamshire 66 77 64 76 55 82 67 76 72 75 67 78
Oldham 62 71 59 71 49 61 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 71 77 66 74
Oxfordshire 70 78 65 74 76 77 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 72 80 71 79
Peterborough 63 74 63 75 65 90 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 68 78 63 74
Plymouth 66 76 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 72 74 66 76
Poole 73 83 77 81 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 100 withheld to protect confidentiality 78 86 72 83
Portsmouth 67 79 64 78 72 73 100 100 63 80 68 80
Reading 70 79 69 84 74 80 100 withheld to protect confidentiality 72 75 69 79
Redbridge 73 82 79 87 70 74 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 74 84 66 79
Redcar and Cleveland 71 83 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 72 83
Richmond upon Thames 76 83 77 80 71 76 withheld to protect confidentiality 100 79 85 76 84
Rochdale 66 76 66 75 68 67 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 77 76 65 77
Rotherham 65 76 69 80 62 70 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 63 80 65 76
Rutland 78 82 100 100 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 78 83
Salford 70 79 70 83 64 82 withheld to protect confidentiality 100 71 79 72 80
Sandwell 63 73 68 79 68 77 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 63 76 62 70
Sefton 66 75 73 75 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 100 withheld to protect confidentiality 58 81 67 75
Sheffield 67 76 67 78 75 75 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 66 78 67 76
Shropshire 67 80 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 69 89 67 79
Slough 72 79 78 87 68 85 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 75 80 66 68
Solihull 75 82 80 82 68 84 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 77 82 75 83
Somerset 70 79 71 90 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 69 82 71 79
South Gloucestershire 74 81 73 84 77 76 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 69 85 74 81
South Tyneside 76 81 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 100 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 74 60 76 83
Southampton 70 81 74 86 78 74 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 75 83 69 80
Southend-on-Sea 71 82 73 88 74 79 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 62 83 72 82
Southwark 73 80 83 82 72 83 79 76 70 82 78 79
St. Helens 63 73 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 100 withheld to protect confidentiality 68 72 63 73
Staffordshire 72 82 78 82 50 88 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 77 83 72 82
Stockport 72 80 79 76 68 80 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 70 82 73 80
Stockton-on-Tees 70 82 74 88 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 100 100 62 72 71 82
Stoke-on-Trent 64 76 62 80 62 85 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 65 84 65 75
Suffolk 68 77 84 77 75 74 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 70 78 68 77
Sunderland 71 79 66 78 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 70 84 72 80
Surrey 75 83 78 86 79 86 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 76 87 74 82
Sutton 74 82 82 89 77 78 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 82 82 70 80
Swindon 65 77 70 81 64 86 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 64 87 65 76
Tameside 65 75 61 70 68 80 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 65 80 66 76
Telford and Wrekin 73 82 65 80 77 89 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 84 76 73 82
Thurrock 73 80 72 92 78 90 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 77 84 72 77
Torbay 68 78 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 64 86 68 78
Tower Hamlets 71 81 72 81 75 81 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 71 89 68 76
Trafford 75 83 71 85 83 88 69 85 74 79 76 83
Wakefield 66 78 59 75 68 75 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 70 84 66 79
Walsall 68 75 73 78 80 82 withheld to protect confidentiality 100 69 81 67 75
Waltham Forest 76 83 77 85 73 87 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 82 86 74 80
Wandsworth 78 84 77 87 70 80 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 76 80 83 86
Warrington 72 80 68 84 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 100 83 84 72 80
Warwickshire 72 81 78 87 61 81 withheld to protect confidentiality 100 73 82 71 81
West Berkshire 72 79 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 100 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 78 93 71 78
West Sussex 64 75 73 77 62 61 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 71 77 63 75
Westminster 75 79 77 81 82 79 100 withheld to protect confidentiality 78 88 78 83
Wigan 69 79 69 73 71 76 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 72 88 69 79
Wiltshire 70 77 74 84 69 90 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 78 80 70 77
Windsor and Maidenhead 77 83 70 86 withheld to protect confidentiality 100 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 76 80 79 84
Wirral 66 78 76 79 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 67 50 70 84 65 78
Wokingham 77 84 85 87 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 100 82 86 75 82
Wolverhampton 66 76 70 80 75 83 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 67 80 63 73
Worcestershire 69 77 63 71 79 50 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 64 84 69 77
York 71 78 64 83 withheld to protect confidentiality 100 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 64 81 72 78

Summary

The data shows that:

  • overall, girls did better than boys in most local authorities

  • girls were most likely to reach the expected standard in Hackney and Greenwich in London, where 85% of girls did so

  • boys were most likely to reach the expected standard in Bexley in London, where 79% of boys did so

  • for Asian pupils, the biggest attainment gap was in Cheshire West in the North West, where 87% of girls met the expected standard, compared to 63% of boys

  • for Black pupils, the biggest attainment gap was in Dorset in the South West, where 50% of girls met the expected standard, compared to 100% of boys

  • for Chinese pupils, the biggest attainment gap was in Northumberland in the North East, where 50% of girls met the expected standard, compared to 100% of boys

  • for pupils in the Mixed ethnic group, the biggest attainment gap was in Bury in the North West, where 81% of girls met the expected standard, compared to 45% of boys

  • for White pupils, the biggest attainment gap was in Harrow in London, where 75% of girls met the expected standard, compared to 61% of boys, and in Hartlepool in the North East, where 80% of girls met the expected standard compared to 66% of boys

  • please be aware except for the information for White pupils, the statistics quoted for reading by ethnicity, gender and local authority are based on small numbers of pupils and are highly variable over time

Methodology and type of data

Type of data

Linked Administrative Data

Purpose of data source

The 2016 key stage 1 assessments are the first which assess the new, more challenging national curriculum. The expected standard has also been raised to be higher than the old level 2. As a result, figures for 2016 are not comparable to those for earlier years.

Methodology

The key stage 1 dataset is compiled using information matched together from three data sources:

  • key stage 1 teacher assessment results
  • prior attainment results in phonics
  • school census records

Key stage 1 results received from local authorities are combined with pupil characteristics from the school census by the department’s contractor.

Records are matched using identifiers such as surname, forename, date of birth, unique pupil number (UPN), gender and postcode. This successfully matches around 98% of results.

Key stage 1 assessment results are not published at school level. The coverage of the local authority (LA) and regional statistics is for state-funded schools only in England. This includes schools and academies but excludes hospital schools, pupil referral units and alternative provision.

The information is collected from 16,337 schools (approximately 650,000 pupils).

Pupils are included in the figures for free school meals (FSM) if their families have claimed eligibility for FSM at the time of the annual spring school census. This FSM definition includes all who were eligible to receive FSM, not only those who actually received FSM. Pupils not eligible for FSM or unclassified pupils are described as ‘non-FSM’.
Parents are able to claim FSM if they receive a qualifying benefit .

FSM is used as an indicator of disadvantage, but when drawing conclusions, it should be remembered that not all eligible parents apply for FSM. Families who don’t quite reach the eligibility threshold for FSM may still be suffering deprivation.

Any pupils who do not have a valid key stage 1 outcome for a subject are excluded from the calculations for that subject and do not appear in the number of eligible pupils or in the outcome percentages. For reading, writing and mathematics, the valid outcomes are:

  • below the pre-key stage standard (BLW)
  • foundations for the expected standard (PKF)
  • working towards the expected standard (WTS)
  • working at the expected standard (EXS)
  • working at greater depth within the expected standard (GDS)
  • absent (A)
  • disapplied (D)

For science, the valid outcomes are:

  • has not met the expected standard (HNM)
  • working at the expected standard (EXS)
  • absent (A)
  • disapplied (D)

As with phonics, we include pupils with ‘A’ or ‘D’ to ensure complete coverage of the cohort. In the 2016 data, there were no pupils with maladministration in any subject.

Rounding

All charts, tables and downloads are rounded to the nearest whole number.

Related publications

Schools, pupils and their characteristics: January 2016

Data source details

Source

Key stage 1 statistics

Department

Department for Education

Suppression rules

Values of 1 or 2 or a percentage based on 1 or 2 pupils who achieved, or did not achieve, a particular standard are suppressed. Some additional figures may be suppressed to prevent the possibility of a suppressed figure being revealed. This suppression is consistent with DfE’s statistical policy on confidentiality.

Figures for the Isles of Scilly and City of London are suppressed in DfE’s key stage 1 provisional Statistical First Release as these local authorities have a single school and DfE do not publish school level information in the performance tables at the time of the provisional release. These figures become unsuppressed in the revised release as school level figures are already published in the performance tables.

Regional eligible pupil figures are rounded to the nearest 10 so that it is not possible to derive figures for these LAs by summing the figures for the other LAs in the region.

In the school level data, any figures relating to a cohort of 5 pupils or fewer will be suppressed. This applies to sub-groups of pupils as well as the whole cohort, for example, if there were five boys and three girls in a school, DfE would not publish attainment for boys or girls separately but would publish attainment for all pupils as this is based on 8 pupils.

Disclosure control

The Code of Practice for Official Statistics requires DfE to take reasonable steps to ensure that their published or disseminated statistics protect confidentiality.

For more information about DfE’s disclosure control procedures for its statistical releases please see DfE’s statistical policy statement on confidentiality

Download the data

expected-standard-in-reading-for-children-aged-5-to-7-key-stage-1-national.csv

This file contains: ethnicity, year, gender, FSM status, denominator

expected-standard-in-reading-for-children-aged-5-to-7-key-stage-1-local-authority.csv

This file contains: ethnicity, year, gender, region, local authority, denominator

higher-standard-in-reading-for-children-aged-5-to-7-key-stage-1-national.csv

This file contains: ethnicity, year, gender, denominator