1. Main facts and figures

  • in 2015/16, 512,084 pupils were included in Progress 8, measuring pupil progress between the ages of 11 and 16 years: 80% were White, 9% were Asian, 5% were Black, 4% were Mixed, 1% were Other, and 0.3% were Chinese

  • Chinese, Other, Asian and Black pupils made more than average progress between the ages of 11 to 16, and Mixed ethnicity and White pupils made less than average progress

  • pupils eligible for free school meals made less progress between the ages of 11 and 16 than those not eligible

  • overall, and within every ethnic group, girls made more progress than boys

  • White boys in non-selective schools in highly selective areas were less likely to make progress than any other group in any other type of school

  • overall, girls and boys in Muslim schools were more likely to make progress than pupils in schools both of other religious faith, or no religious faith

  • new data has been published for the year 2016/17 – this data isn’t currently reflected in the charts, tables and commentary on this page, but you can get a CSV file with the latest figures if you download the data

Things you need to know

Please be aware that some of the statistics quoted here for some ethnic groups are based on very small numbers of pupils (for example, only 130 Chinese children were eligible for free school meals in 2015/16) and are highly variable over time.

Because the results for Chinese pupils are based on a very small number, the average score for this group can be heavily influenced by one pupil either performing exceptionally, or getting a very low score.

Attainment is lower for children from a Traveller of Irish heritage background – however, there were only 122 pupils from this background in key stage 4 in 2015/16. This was a much smaller number than for other ethnic groups (for example, there were 20,434 Pakistani pupils in key stage 4). Therefore, data comparisons between Traveller of Irish Heritage pupils and other ethnic groups may be unreliable.

The ethnicity of 1.1% of pupils (5,771) is not known. This includes pupils whose ethnicity was not surveyed, pupils who refused to be surveyed, and pupils whose ethnicity could not be determined.

The Department of Education (DfE) has excluded, or ‘suppressed’, very small numbers (for example, values of 1 or 2, a percentage based on 1 or 2 pupils who achieved, or 0, 1 or 2 pupils who did not achieve a particular level).

This is because, where the size of the ethnic group population is small enough that an individual’s identity could be revealed, information is suppressed to preserve confidentiality. This is consistent with DfE’s statistical policy statement on confidentiality (PDF).

The Progress 8 measure only includes qualifications which count towards the secondary performance tables.

Schools that offer unapproved qualifications, such as unregulated international GCSEs, will not have these qualifications counted in the performance tables. Achievements in these qualifications by pupils at such schools are not reflected in this data.

This data therefore represents the performance of schools and pupils in qualifications which count in the performance tables, rather than all qualifications taken by pupils. The difference between the figures for all schools and state-funded mainstream schools is mostly due to the impact of the unregulated international GCSEs taken in independent schools.

Data for some Muslim and Sikh schools was not included in the statistics for faith schools, because the small numbers of pupils make it impossible to draw meaningful conclusions about their attainment. Data for faith schools is also only provided for pupils in state-funded mainstream schools.

Progress 8 is a relative measure. The measure calculates the national average for progress between the ages of 11 and 16 at mainstream schools, and designates that as zero. It then measures the progress of individual groups against that national average baseline.

The national average for pupils at special schools is less than zero, because Progress 8 scores for these schools are calculated by comparison with Attainment 8 scores attained by pupils in mainstream schools.

Schools can ask for a pupil to be removed from their performance results if the pupil:

  • arrived recently from overseas their first language isn’t English
  • was admitted following a permanent exclusion from another school
  • is not at the end of key stage 4
  • has left England to live abroad
  • has died

Pupils removed from a school’s performance results may still be included in the national figures.

What the data measures

This data measures how much progress students make between the end of key stage 2 (year 6, when they are usually aged 11 years) and the end of key stage 4 (year 11, when they are usually aged 16 years).

The data covers the academic year 2015/16 (September 2015 to July 2016).

‘Progress 8’ is one of 2 new ways of measuring how well students do at 16. The other is Attainment 8. These measures were first implemented by the Department for Education (DfE) in 2016.

The 8 subjects which make up Attainment 8 include English and Maths, which are both ‘double-weighted’, meaning they are given twice the importance of other subjects.

Of the remaining 6 subjects:

  • 3 must come from qualifications that go towards the English Baccalaureate (EBacc)
  • 3 can be either EBacc subjects, GCSE subjects, or technical qualifications from a list approved by DfE

Each individual grade a pupil achieves is assigned a point score, which is then used to calculate their total Attainment 8 score.

Progress 8 measures the progress students make between the ages of 11 and 16. It does this by comparing an individual pupil’s Attainment 8 score with the national average score for pupils with a similar starting point. This starting point, known as prior attainment, is calculated using pupil assessments from the end of primary school (that is, the end of key stage 2, when children are between 7 and 11).

The higher a pupil’s Progress 8 score, the more progress they have made in comparison with the national average for pupils with similar starting points.

The data presented here calculates a national average for Progress 8 and compares it to average Progress 8 scores for pupils coming from different ethnic groups.

As well as average pupil scores, the data also measures the Progress 8 score of schools. A school’s Progress 8 score is the average of all its pupils’ individual Progress 8 scores.

A school Progress 8 score of 0 means the average attainment of pupils at this school is in line with the national average for pupils coming from similar starting points. A score above 0 means pupils at the school are doing better than average, and a score below 0 means they are doing less well than average.

Just as the data calculates ethnic group averages from individual pupil scores, so it also calculates type of school averages from individual school scores. This allows comparison in attainment between different types of school.

A time series for this data isn’t available, because 2016 was the first year all schools were assessed using the Progress 8 measure.

For the ‘Average Progress 8 scores by ethnicity and type of school’ table, schools are divided into the following 11 categories (some of which group a number of different types of school together):

  • all state-funded schools (includes local authority-maintained schools, academies, free schools, city technology colleges and state-funded special schools)

  • all state-funded mainstream schools (includes local authority-maintained mainstream schools, academies, free schools, city technology colleges)

  • academies and free schools (all-ability, state-funded schools set up by a sponsor or by local people, respectively)

  • converter academies (formerly schools, of various types)

  • free schools (all-ability, state-funded schools set up by local people)

  • further education colleges with provision for 14 to 16-year-olds (vocational and general qualifications)

  • local authority-maintained mainstream schools (state-funded schools wholly or partly under local authority control, including community schools, foundation schools, voluntary-aided schools, voluntary-controlled schools and local authority-maintained special schools)

  • sponsored academies (all-ability, state-funded schools established and managed by sponsors)

  • state-funded special schools (includes local authority maintained special schools, academy sponsor-led special schools, academy special schools and special free schools)

  • studio schools (a new model of school offering mainstream qualifications through practical, project-based learning)

  • university technical colleges (new 14 to 19 academies specialising in subjects that need modern, technical, industry-standard equipment alongside general education)

Find more on types of school in Revised GCSE and equivalent results in England 2015 to 2016 Quality and methodology information (PDF).

The ethnic categories used in this data

This data uses categories from the Department for Education’s school census, which is broadly based on the 2001 national Census, with 3 exceptions:

  • Traveller of Irish Heritage and Gypsy/Roma children have been separated into 2 categories
  • Sri Lankan has been added to the Asian/Asian British group but is not reported separately
  • Chinese pupils have been assigned a separate category

These changes were made after consultations with local authorities and lobby groups.

The categories in the school census are as follows:

White:

  • White British
  • White Irish
  • Traveller of Irish Heritage
  • Gypsy/Roma
  • Other White

Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups:

  • White and Black Caribbean
  • White and Black African
  • White and Asian
  • Other Mixed background

Asian/Asian British:

  • Indian
  • Pakistani
  • Bangladeshi
  • Sri Lankan
  • Other Asian background

Black/African/Caribbean/Black British:

  • Black African
  • Black Caribbean
  • Other Black background
  • Chinese
  • Other ethnic group

Information is provided for both detailed and broad ethnic groups where possible and when the data is available.

The 6 broad categories used are as follows:

  • Asian/Asian British
  • Black/African/Caribbean/Black British
  • Chinese
  • Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups
  • White
  • Other ethnic group

However, local authority data is only provided for 5 broad ethnic groups. Information about the specific ethnic categories is excluded to preserve confidentiality and ensure individuals cannot be identified. Information about the Other ethnic group is not given because DfE does not publish data for this group at the local authority level.

The 5 broad categories are as follows:

  • Asian/Asian British
  • Black/African/Caribbean/Black British
  • Chinese
  • Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups
  • White

2. By ethnicity

Average Progress 8 score by ethnicity
Ethnicity Score Pupils
All -0.03 512,084
Asian 0.31 46,394
Bangladeshi 0.33 7,800
Indian 0.47 12,564
Pakistani 0.13 19,032
Asian other 0.49 6,998
Black 0.17 24,265
Black African 0.34 14,658
Black Caribbean -0.15 6,808
Black other 0.09 2,799
Chinese 0.68 1,606
Mixed -0.04 21,311
Mixed White/Asian 0.10 4,717
Mixed White/Black African 0.03 2,423
Mixed White/Black Caribbean -0.27 7,018
Mixed other 0.06 7,153
White -0.09 407,271
White British -0.11 387,510
White Irish 0.07 1,629
White Irish Traveller -1.16 114
White Gypsy/Roma -0.69 689
White other 0.42 17,329
Other 0.47 6,307
Unknown -0.32 4,930

Download table data (CSV) Source data (CSV)

Summary

This data shows that:

  • among the broad ethnic groups, pupils in the Chinese, Other, Asian and Black groups made better than average progress between the ages of 11 and 16 – these groups achieved Progress 8 scores of 0.68, 0.47, 0.31 and 0.17, respectively, compared with a national average of 0

  • pupils in the White and Mixed ethnic groups made below average progress between the ages of 11 and 16 – these groups achieved scores of -0.09 and -0.04, respectively, compared with a national average of 0

  • among the specific ethnic groups, Chinese pupils had the highest average score (0.68) and Traveller of Irish Heritage the lowest (-1.16), followed by Gypsy/Roma pupils (-0.69) and Mixed White and Black Caribbean pupils (-0.27)

3. By ethnicity and eligibility for free school meals

Average Progress 8 score by ethnicity and eligibility for free school meals (FSM)
Non-FSM FSM
Ethnicity Score Pupils Score Pupils
All 0.04 442,994 -0.46 69,090
Asian 0.36 38,000 0.11 8,394
Bangladeshi 0.36 5,446 0.25 2,354
Indian 0.49 11,569 0.24 995
Pakistani 0.18 14,783 -0.04 4,249
Asian other 0.51 6,202 0.28 796
Black 0.22 18,453 0.04 5,812
Black African 0.37 11,125 0.25 3,533
Black Caribbean -0.09 5,192 -0.34 1,616
Black other 0.16 2,136 -0.14 663
Chinese 0.68 1,488 0.64 118
Mixed 0.05 17,291 -0.44 4,020
Mixed White/Asian 0.17 4,025 -0.36 692
Mixed White/Black African 0.11 1,940 -0.25 483
Mixed White/Black Caribbean -0.17 5,425 -0.60 1,593
Mixed other 0.15 5,901 -0.35 1,252
White -0.01 359,049 -0.65 48,222
White British -0.03 341,879 -0.68 45,631
White Irish 0.15 1,446 -0.54 183
White Irish Traveller -0.91 47 -1.34 67
White Gypsy/Roma -0.61 439 -0.82 250
White other 0.47 15,238 0.07 2,091
Other 0.53 4,679 0.31 1,628
Unknown -0.24 4,034 -0.68 896

Download table data (CSV) Source data (CSV)

Summary

Eligibility for FSM is used as an indicator of deprivation by the Department for Education. For more about who qualifies for FSM, see Methodology and type of data.

This data shows that:

  • in 2015/16, overall, 13% of pupils included in Progress 8 were eligible for FSM (69,090 pupils)

  • 26% of pupils from the Other ethnic background, 24% of Black pupils, 19% of Mixed ethnic pupils, 18% of Asian pupils, 12% of White pupils and 7% of Chinese pupils were eligible for FSM

  • overall, pupils eligible for FSM made less progress between the ages of 11 and 16, with an average Progress 8 score of -0.46, compared with 0.04 for non-eligible pupils; and within every ethnic group, pupils eligible for FSM did less well than those not eligible

  • of FSM-eligible pupils, Chinese students made the most progress, with an average score of 0.64, and Traveller of Irish Heritage pupils made the least progress, with a score of -1.34

  • the Irish ethnic group saw the widest gap in progress made between the ages of 11 and 16, with FSM-eligible pupils scoring -0.54, and non-eligible, 0.15

4. By ethnicity and area

Average Progress 8 score by ethnicity and area
All pupils Asian Chinese Black Mixed White
Local Authority Score Pupils Score Pupils Score Pupils Score Pupils Score Pupils Score Pupils
All - England -0.03 512,084 0.31 46,394 0.68 1,606 0.17 24,265 -0.04 21,311 -0.09 407,271
Barking and Dagenham 0.15 2,024 0.54 374 0.18 5 0.36 477 -0.10 134 -0.06 987
Barnet 0.33 3,265 0.58 450 0.66 40 0.20 439 0.31 333 0.27 1,668
Barnsley -0.22 2,042 0.90 4 N/A* 0 0.64 9 -0.20 29 -0.22 1,990
Bath and North East Somerset -0.02 1,939 0.30 21 1.08 5 -0.08 16 -0.36 68 -0.01 1,801
Bedford 0.14 1,762 0.43 260 1.47 3 0.40 94 -0.04 139 0.07 1,245
Bexley -0.04 3,052 0.31 184 0.38 38 0.35 480 -0.12 151 -0.17 2,134
Birmingham 0.00 11,289 0.03 4,354 0.81 36 0.14 1,307 -0.05 783 -0.11 4,306
Blackburn with Darwen 0.11 1,696 0.47 711 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.17 12 0.11 59 -0.18 897
Blackpool -0.38 1,286 0.80 16 1.31 4 0.01 7 0.12 24 -0.40 1,233
Bolton -0.20 3,093 0.27 579 0.92 6 0.29 82 -0.25 85 -0.35 2,299
Bournemouth -0.01 1,484 1.16 33 0.82 6 0.36 9 0.12 62 -0.06 1,335
Bracknell Forest 0.09 1,026 0.78 38 0.88 3 0.06 22 0.21 47 0.05 910
Bradford -0.15 5,561 -0.02 2,371 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.36 59 -0.35 207 -0.26 2,844
Brent 0.31 2,577 0.52 747 0.70 8 0.02 703 -0.11 138 0.28 458
Brighton and Hove 0.02 2,017 0.44 70 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.36 35 0.18 162 -0.02 1,728
Bristol, City of -0.19 2,952 0.33 222 0.60 13 0.01 235 -0.30 199 -0.26 2,228
Bromley 0.10 3,138 0.65 147 0.47 32 0.26 244 0.19 215 0.12 2,342
Buckinghamshire 0.01 5,139 0.12 784 0.26 13 0.07 108 -0.13 276 0.00 3,882
Bury -0.06 1,976 0.32 220 0.07 3 0.32 32 -0.09 96 -0.12 1,593
Calderdale -0.03 2,461 0.16 363 0.43 4 0.52 18 -0.05 89 -0.07 1,977
Cambridgeshire 0.11 5,434 0.56 168 1.13 19 0.43 46 0.17 179 0.08 4,951
Camden 0.00 1,344 0.11 260 0.81 7 0.07 330 -0.31 138 -0.10 518
Central Bedfordshire -0.07 2,532 0.27 42 0.74 9 0.33 37 -0.07 101 -0.08 2,328
Cheshire East -0.15 3,637 0.32 49 0.33 13 -0.22 12 -0.31 88 -0.15 3,433
Cheshire West and Chester 0.04 3,285 0.66 27 0.43 8 -0.02 10 0.18 63 0.03 3,149
City of London N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A*
Cornwall 0.03 5,271 0.67 18 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.14 7 0.09 93 0.03 5,089
County Durham -0.13 4,909 0.74 30 0.59 6 -0.29 6 -0.03 36 -0.12 4,793
Coventry -0.05 3,242 0.47 614 0.43 8 0.35 202 -0.24 171 -0.22 2,194
Croydon 0.08 3,395 0.47 391 0.45 19 0.10 1,006 -0.08 389 0.01 1,432
Cumbria -0.23 4,990 0.51 23 0.11 8 -0.48 7 0.11 44 -0.23 4,873
Darlington -0.39 1,100 -0.08 20 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.35 13 -0.39 1,054
Derby -0.17 2,639 0.02 446 0.97 8 -0.13 78 -0.31 163 -0.22 1,924
Derbyshire -0.27 7,505 -0.04 72 0.07 13 0.13 18 -0.29 154 -0.27 7,189
Devon -0.02 6,721 0.56 26 0.98 7 0.82 12 0.06 82 -0.03 6,514
Doncaster -0.21 2,928 0.25 67 0.43 10 -0.13 30 -0.04 58 -0.24 2,732
Dorset -0.04 4,038 0.43 37 0.85 6 0.83 8 -0.07 77 -0.06 3,842
Dudley -0.22 3,515 0.10 282 0.13 3 0.04 59 -0.36 168 -0.26 2,945
Ealing 0.28 2,459 0.42 635 0.71 4 0.17 521 0.11 186 0.17 755
East Riding of Yorkshire 0.10 3,289 0.19 10 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.09 42 0.09 3,175
East Sussex 0.04 4,753 0.90 53 0.77 8 0.68 25 0.11 156 0.04 4,395
Enfield 0.05 3,304 0.30 298 0.52 19 0.10 794 -0.13 306 0.02 1,631
Essex 0.00 14,052 0.49 287 0.57 45 0.40 278 0.05 511 -0.02 12,763
Gateshead -0.15 1,880 0.85 34 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 1.24 12 0.27 19 -0.19 1,784
Gloucestershire -0.05 5,971 0.49 133 0.93 17 -0.29 54 -0.25 182 -0.05 5,530
Greenwich -0.01 2,009 0.66 177 0.36 23 0.21 539 -0.11 185 -0.23 1,006
Hackney 0.35 1,910 0.45 267 0.81 10 0.25 657 0.27 189 0.39 649
Halton -0.19 1,356 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* 0 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.01 24 -0.19 1,320
Hammersmith and Fulham 0.12 1,228 0.23 95 0.76 4 0.01 311 -0.03 123 0.15 574
Hampshire -0.03 12,632 0.55 288 0.64 28 0.27 88 -0.09 326 -0.05 11,770
Haringey 0.28 1,977 0.39 121 0.82 7 0.13 570 0.18 232 0.35 873
Harrow 0.32 1,879 0.46 790 0.28 9 0.24 325 0.10 153 0.19 538
Hartlepool -0.33 1,050 0.30 14 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.12 7 -0.34 1,023
Havering -0.14 2,810 0.40 104 0.29 10 0.13 327 -0.14 124 -0.21 2,189
Herefordshire, County of -0.03 1,634 0.77 5 1.60 4 -0.15 5 0.91 22 -0.05 1,590
Hertfordshire 0.06 12,043 0.44 777 0.74 50 0.28 396 0.02 667 0.02 9,954
Hillingdon 0.06 2,926 0.43 690 0.73 8 0.17 299 0.10 285 -0.23 1,418
Hounslow 0.29 2,355 0.62 624 0.91 5 0.30 320 0.31 206 0.18 879
Isle of Wight -0.33 1,271 -0.06 10 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* 0 -0.31 27 -0.33 1,220
Isles of Scilly 0.00 22 N/A* 0 N/A* 0 N/A* 0 N/A* 0 -0.05 20
Islington 0.19 1,309 0.51 169 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.22 400 0.04 153 0.03 467
Kensington and Chelsea 0.34 679 0.49 22 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.32 140 0.26 103 0.31 275
Kent -0.04 14,844 0.61 474 0.77 54 0.41 246 0.11 480 -0.08 13,351
Kingston upon Hull, City of 0.03 2,172 0.43 15 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.52 15 0.31 40 0.05 1,974
Kingston upon Thames 0.34 1,416 0.58 316 0.62 15 0.23 66 0.37 107 0.23 836
Kirklees -0.11 4,397 0.12 1,097 0.77 7 0.01 74 -0.28 221 -0.19 2,963
Knowsley -0.89 1,126 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.44 20 -0.91 1,086
Lambeth 0.06 1,731 0.32 70 0.25 14 -0.02 880 -0.05 216 0.20 436
Lancashire -0.11 11,764 0.20 1,073 0.62 25 0.10 32 -0.14 258 -0.14 10,294
Leeds -0.06 7,128 0.08 804 1.27 23 0.27 333 -0.19 313 -0.09 5,544
Leicester -0.14 3,055 0.19 1,406 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.11 306 -0.52 200 -0.55 1,084
Leicestershire -0.12 6,847 0.64 475 0.47 15 0.20 40 -0.03 232 -0.19 5,998
Lewisham -0.14 2,139 0.41 114 0.70 31 -0.19 954 -0.21 275 -0.21 638
Lincolnshire -0.11 7,448 0.50 66 0.53 14 0.07 26 0.20 123 -0.12 7,166
Liverpool -0.35 4,387 0.31 108 0.61 40 0.01 117 -0.47 187 -0.38 3,788
Luton 0.01 2,260 0.22 901 -0.02 4 0.20 259 -0.25 178 -0.23 886
Manchester -0.03 4,236 0.44 837 0.94 36 0.24 597 -0.28 325 -0.32 2,216
Medway 0.05 2,849 0.66 150 0.69 9 0.30 92 0.04 112 -0.01 2,444
Merton 0.27 1,298 0.54 190 1.45 4 0.24 267 0.23 146 0.21 669
Middlesbrough -0.12 1,408 0.80 163 N/A* 0 0.92 13 0.24 48 -0.22 1,141
Milton Keynes -0.12 2,623 0.23 188 0.50 15 0.37 269 -0.12 176 -0.23 1,926
Newcastle upon Tyne -0.07 2,271 0.56 223 0.38 7 0.74 57 0.43 57 -0.19 1,872
Newham 0.23 3,112 0.40 1,471 0.59 9 0.16 826 -0.18 190 -0.07 471
Norfolk 0.01 7,692 0.63 82 0.48 14 0.57 51 0.07 158 0.00 7,310
North East Lincolnshire -0.06 1,565 0.23 8 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.13 37 -0.08 1,463
North Lincolnshire 0.08 1,817 0.53 60 0.76 3 0.31 9 0.37 19 0.06 1,718
North Somerset -0.12 2,098 0.11 27 0.61 5 0.28 14 0.18 63 -0.13 1,980
North Tyneside -0.04 1,883 0.27 36 1.30 9 0.34 8 0.26 32 -0.06 1,780
North Yorkshire 0.04 5,958 0.43 81 0.96 13 0.49 16 0.18 117 0.03 5,686
Northamptonshire -0.13 7,319 0.45 300 0.78 17 0.27 229 -0.05 316 -0.18 6,392
Northumberland -0.14 3,128 0.64 38 0.79 6 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.24 33 -0.16 3,041
Nottingham -0.35 2,376 0.10 412 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.06 209 -0.49 222 -0.52 1,469
Nottinghamshire -0.04 7,691 0.36 169 withheld to protect confidentiality 21 0.08 67 -0.20 235 -0.04 7,105
Oldham -0.34 2,811 0.07 780 1.05 6 0.16 36 -0.45 83 -0.49 1,860
Oxfordshire 0.01 5,677 0.32 289 0.91 14 0.37 108 -0.05 268 -0.02 4,937
Peterborough -0.03 2,097 0.20 341 0.55 8 0.49 56 -0.01 101 -0.10 1,556
Plymouth -0.14 2,565 0.73 23 1.43 7 0.55 14 0.02 38 -0.16 2,439
Poole 0.04 1,378 0.87 28 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.49 3 0.25 45 0.01 1,288
Portsmouth -0.17 1,662 0.53 86 0.50 7 0.87 27 0.41 52 -0.26 1,468
Reading -0.11 1,051 0.38 186 0.87 18 0.09 74 -0.49 95 -0.25 657
Redbridge 0.28 3,097 0.43 1,470 0.82 16 0.21 470 -0.01 219 0.14 835
Redcar and Cleveland -0.30 1,610 0.08 19 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.00 20 -0.31 1,561
Richmond upon Thames 0.10 1,266 0.42 77 0.96 10 -0.04 43 -0.02 124 0.08 967
Rochdale -0.08 2,247 0.23 533 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.69 52 0.13 70 -0.22 1,577
Rotherham 0.04 3,257 0.21 223 0.68 8 0.65 31 -0.19 57 0.02 2,922
Rutland 0.29 466 0.53 3 N/A* 0 0.37 3 0.02 8 0.29 451
Salford -0.30 1,953 0.75 31 0.08 6 0.47 48 -0.08 67 -0.37 1,763
Sandwell -0.29 3,318 0.20 879 1.11 3 -0.14 220 -0.39 212 -0.52 1,936
Sefton -0.24 3,012 0.48 17 0.11 7 0.27 15 -0.07 59 -0.21 2,850
Sheffield 0.01 5,012 0.26 458 0.82 12 0.27 219 -0.12 259 -0.05 3,891
Shropshire -0.05 2,825 0.45 15 0.85 7 0.16 4 0.03 51 -0.05 2,719
Slough 0.22 1,519 0.34 747 0.86 5 0.28 139 0.09 104 -0.05 459
Solihull -0.09 2,921 0.26 259 0.62 10 -0.10 66 -0.21 180 -0.12 2,339
Somerset 0.03 4,935 0.64 39 0.39 5 -0.01 10 0.17 92 0.02 4,769
South Gloucestershire -0.23 2,699 0.36 61 0.61 6 -0.20 36 -0.14 102 -0.25 2,479
South Tyneside -0.16 1,517 0.24 54 N/A* 0 -0.18 6 -0.32 17 -0.17 1,408
Southampton -0.12 1,849 0.67 163 0.78 7 0.59 47 -0.09 91 -0.23 1,520
Southend-on-Sea -0.01 1,926 0.46 117 0.61 22 0.38 108 -0.12 84 -0.07 1,575
Southwark 0.22 2,192 0.53 109 0.77 31 0.34 1,000 0.03 245 -0.01 653
St. Helens -0.33 1,740 0.66 13 0.60 4 -0.08 7 -0.09 15 -0.33 1,652
Staffordshire -0.10 8,576 0.26 234 1.27 17 0.20 32 -0.06 176 -0.11 8,045
Stockport 0.02 2,741 0.32 151 0.79 10 0.36 18 0.16 100 -0.01 2,426
Stockton-on-Tees -0.17 1,950 0.34 96 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.27 22 -0.20 1,815
Stoke-on-Trent -0.08 2,179 0.25 285 0.43 6 0.10 34 0.02 69 -0.15 1,756
Suffolk 0.02 6,903 0.70 91 0.67 3 0.35 37 0.07 280 0.00 6,243
Sunderland -0.17 2,772 0.48 88 0.98 3 0.22 14 0.09 25 -0.20 2,629
Surrey 0.14 9,844 0.57 527 0.76 34 0.32 143 0.20 443 0.10 8,582
Sutton 0.17 2,501 0.62 465 0.64 40 0.27 188 0.15 184 0.00 1,563
Swindon -0.17 2,004 0.48 156 0.18 7 0.19 32 -0.09 57 -0.24 1,712
Tameside -0.13 2,420 0.42 233 0.62 9 0.64 24 -0.07 68 -0.22 2,054
Telford and Wrekin -0.15 1,920 0.04 109 0.45 6 0.34 24 -0.08 66 -0.17 1,704
Thurrock -0.01 1,654 0.49 59 0.78 9 0.48 142 0.29 54 -0.11 1,358
Torbay -0.09 1,433 0.73 12 0.54 3 0.40 6 0.27 35 -0.02 1,288
Tower Hamlets 0.15 2,348 0.31 1,595 0.99 9 0.17 264 -0.45 120 -0.43 288
Trafford 0.05 2,576 0.23 301 0.51 43 0.08 67 0.05 124 0.01 1,989
Wakefield 0.06 3,535 0.48 110 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.31 27 0.12 61 0.04 3,321
Walsall -0.24 3,158 0.13 592 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.12 121 -0.40 153 -0.36 2,266
Waltham Forest 0.23 2,301 0.44 601 0.95 9 0.07 556 0.03 221 0.21 838
Wandsworth 0.15 1,484 0.49 285 0.54 13 0.02 426 -0.04 175 0.10 512
Warrington -0.16 2,303 0.35 46 0.52 5 0.19 10 -0.25 32 -0.18 2,176
Warwickshire 0.02 5,395 0.48 245 0.59 13 0.24 42 -0.01 177 -0.01 4,857
West Berkshire 0.07 1,833 0.48 47 0.74 10 -0.19 22 0.14 69 0.10 1,651
West Sussex 0.10 7,751 0.52 291 0.58 9 0.21 102 0.15 231 0.08 7,050
Westminster 0.32 1,430 0.45 179 0.72 16 0.10 311 0.24 119 0.30 450
Wigan -0.09 3,348 0.59 26 0.62 3 0.15 14 0.08 64 -0.10 3,226
Wiltshire 0.01 4,639 0.63 57 0.97 4 0.35 31 -0.06 104 0.00 4,362
Windsor and Maidenhead 0.16 1,342 0.23 176 0.42 7 -0.10 20 0.44 85 0.13 1,038
Wirral -0.04 3,269 0.80 56 0.87 11 0.83 6 -0.14 64 -0.06 3,108
Wokingham 0.19 1,517 0.38 149 0.71 9 0.36 67 -0.12 85 0.18 1,180
Wolverhampton -0.13 2,330 0.34 491 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.04 198 -0.32 218 -0.29 1,399
Worcestershire 0.04 5,407 0.51 128 0.68 6 0.27 18 0.05 165 0.03 5,055
York 0.05 1,519 1.04 9 0.74 7 0.69 8 0.42 30 0.03 1,457

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Summary

This data shows that:

  • pupils in Hackney in London made the most progress between ages 11 and 16, with an average Progress 8 score of 0.35; pupils in Knowsley in the North West made the least progress, with an average score of -0.89

  • the average Progress 8 score was highest for White pupils in Hackney in London, for Mixed and Chinese pupils in Herefordshire in the West Midlands, for Asian pupils in Bournemouth in the South West, and for Black pupils in Gateshead in the North East

  • the average Progress 8 score was lowest for White pupils in Knowsley in the North West, for Mixed pupils in Leicester in the East Midlands, for Asian pupils in Darlington in the North East, for Chinese pupils in Luton in the East of England and for Black pupils in Cumbria in the North West

5. By ethnicity and gender

Average Progress 8 score by ethnicity and gender
Boys Girls
Ethnicity Score Pupils Score Pupils
All -0.17 260,504 0.11 251,580
Asian 0.17 23,895 0.46 22,499
Bangladeshi 0.18 3,954 0.48 3,846
Indian 0.35 6,522 0.59 6,042
Pakistani -0.03 9,802 0.30 9,230
Asian other 0.35 3,617 0.63 3,381
Black -0.01 12,056 0.35 12,209
Black African 0.17 7,307 0.51 7,351
Black Caribbean -0.35 3,353 0.05 3,455
Black other -0.12 1,396 0.30 1,403
Chinese 0.56 816 0.80 790
Mixed -0.19 10,745 0.10 10,566
Mixed White/Asian -0.02 2,367 0.21 2,350
Mixed White/Black African -0.14 1,232 0.21 1,191
Mixed White/Black Caribbean -0.44 3,539 -0.09 3,479
Mixed other -0.06 3,607 0.19 3,546
White -0.22 207,213 0.05 200,058
White British -0.24 197,273 0.03 190,237
White Irish -0.08 800 0.22 829
White Irish Traveller -1.32 61 -0.97 53
White Gypsy/Roma -0.75 325 -0.63 364
White other 0.27 8,754 0.57 8,575
Other 0.35 3,245 0.60 3,062
Unknown -0.44 2,534 -0.20 2,396

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Summary

This data shows that:

  • overall, girls made more progress between ages 11 and 16 than boys, with an average Progress 8 score of 0.11, compared with -0.17 for boys

  • within all ethnic groups, girls made more progress than boys, with higher average Progress 8 scores

  • Chinese girls achieved the highest average Progress 8 score (0.80) and Traveller of Irish Heritage boys the lowest average score (-1.32)

  • the largest gap in progress between girls and boys was found among pupils from the Other Black background, where girls scored an average of 0.42 points more; the smallest gap was found among Gypsy/Roma pupils, where girls scored an average of 0.12 points more

6. By ethnicity, gender and eligibility for free school meals

Average Progress 8 score by ethnicity, gender and eligibility for free school meals (FSM)
Non-FSM Boys Non-FSM Girls FSM Boys FSM Girls
Ethnicity Score Pupils Score Pupils Score Pupils Score Pupils
All -0.10 225,292 0.18 217,702 -0.61 35,212 -0.30 33,878
Asian 0.22 19,520 0.50 18,480 -0.06 4,375 0.28 4,019
Bangladeshi 0.21 2,745 0.52 2,701 0.12 1,209 0.39 1,145
Indian 0.37 6,003 0.61 5,566 0.10 519 0.40 476
Pakistani 0.03 7,564 0.34 7,219 -0.22 2,238 0.16 2,011
Asian other 0.38 3,208 0.65 2,994 0.12 409 0.46 387
Black 0.04 9,101 0.38 9,352 -0.17 2,955 0.25 2,857
Black African 0.20 5,506 0.53 5,619 0.06 1,801 0.45 1,732
Black Caribbean -0.28 2,550 0.10 2,642 -0.57 803 -0.12 813
Black other -0.03 1,045 0.34 1,091 -0.40 351 0.15 312
Chinese 0.57 755 0.80 733 0.47 61 0.82 57
Mixed -0.09 8,732 0.20 8,559 -0.59 2,013 -0.29 2,007
Mixed White/Asian 0.06 2,022 0.29 2,003 -0.50 345 -0.21 347
Mixed White/Black African -0.04 974 0.26 966 -0.50 258 0.02 225
Mixed White/Black Caribbean -0.34 2,738 0.01 2,687 -0.77 801 -0.43 792
Mixed other 0.01 2,998 0.28 2,903 -0.44 609 -0.26 643
White -0.15 182,716 0.13 176,333 -0.80 24,497 -0.49 23,725
White British -0.17 174,099 0.10 167,780 -0.83 23,174 -0.52 22,457
White Irish -0.01 705 0.30 741 -0.56 95 -0.52 88
White Irish Traveller -1.21 24 -0.59 23 -1.40 37 -1.26 30
White Gypsy/Roma -0.62 206 -0.60 233 -0.97 119 -0.69 131
White other 0.32 7,682 0.62 7,556 -0.09 1,072 0.25 1,019
Other 0.41 2,400 0.66 2,279 0.19 845 0.43 783
Unknown -0.35 2,068 -0.13 1,966 -0.81 466 -0.54 430

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Summary

Eligibility for free school meals (FSM) is used as an indicator of deprivation by the Department for Education. For more about who qualifies for FSM, see the Methodology section.

This data shows that:

  • overall, FSM-eligible girls made more progress than FSM-eligible boys between ages 11 and 16, with an average Progress 8 score of -0.30, compared with -0.61 for boys

  • within all ethnic groups, FSM-eligible girls also made more progress than FSM-eligible boys, with higher average scores

  • of FSM-eligible pupils, Chinese girls made the most progress, with an average Progress 8 score of 0.82, and Traveller of Irish Heritage boys made the least progress, scoring -1.40

  • the largest gap in progress between FSM-eligible girls and FSM-eligible boys was found in the Other Black group, where girls scored an average of 0.55 points more; the smallest gap was found in the Irish group, where girls scored an average of 0.04 points more

7. By ethnicity, gender and area

Average Progress 8 score by ethnicity, gender and area
All pupils Asian Chinese Black Mixed White
Local Authority All Boys Girls All Boys Girls All Boys Girls All Boys Girls All Boys Girls All Boys Girls
All - England -0.03 -0.17 0.11 0.31 0.17 0.46 0.68 0.56 0.80 0.17 -0.01 0.35 -0.04 -0.19 0.10 -0.09 -0.22 0.05
Barking and Dagenham 0.15 -0.02 0.32 0.54 0.39 0.70 0.18 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.36 0.16 0.57 -0.10 -0.33 0.12 -0.06 -0.21 0.10
Barnet 0.33 0.22 0.44 0.58 0.54 0.63 0.66 0.41 0.89 0.20 0.04 0.37 0.31 0.11 0.49 0.27 0.15 0.39
Barnsley -0.22 -0.34 -0.09 0.90 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* N/A* N/A* 0.64 0.93 0.41 -0.20 -0.19 -0.21 -0.22 -0.36 -0.09
Bath and North East Somerset -0.02 -0.09 0.05 0.30 0.19 0.43 1.08 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.08 0.35 -0.51 -0.36 -0.65 -0.04 -0.01 -0.07 0.04
Bedford 0.14 0.00 0.28 0.43 0.34 0.54 1.47 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.40 0.22 0.58 -0.04 -0.30 0.19 0.07 -0.07 0.21
Bexley -0.04 -0.16 0.08 0.31 0.13 0.50 0.38 0.22 0.58 0.35 0.22 0.49 -0.12 -0.22 0.00 -0.17 -0.28 -0.06
Birmingham 0.00 -0.15 0.16 0.03 -0.11 0.18 0.81 0.78 0.83 0.14 -0.14 0.41 -0.05 -0.19 0.09 -0.11 -0.26 0.05
Blackburn with Darwen 0.11 -0.08 0.30 0.47 0.25 0.71 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* -0.17 -0.61 1.13 0.11 -0.17 0.39 -0.18 -0.34 -0.02
Blackpool -0.38 -0.46 -0.29 0.80 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 1.31 N/A* 1.31 0.01 0.22 -0.15 0.12 -0.27 0.50 -0.40 -0.48 -0.33
Bolton -0.20 -0.36 -0.03 0.27 0.07 0.52 0.92 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.29 0.17 0.39 -0.25 -0.39 -0.09 -0.35 -0.49 -0.18
Bournemouth -0.01 -0.17 0.16 1.16 1.00 1.44 0.82 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.36 -0.05 0.68 0.12 0.18 0.07 -0.06 -0.24 0.12
Bracknell Forest 0.09 -0.01 0.20 0.78 0.85 0.70 0.88 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.06 -0.15 0.27 0.21 0.28 0.11 0.05 -0.07 0.18
Bradford -0.15 -0.33 0.03 -0.02 -0.22 0.19 withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* withheld to protect confidentiality 0.36 -0.12 0.69 -0.35 -0.54 -0.18 -0.26 -0.41 -0.11
Brent 0.31 0.15 0.46 0.52 0.44 0.60 0.70 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.02 -0.22 0.23 -0.11 -0.22 0.01 0.28 0.11 0.46
Brighton and Hove 0.02 -0.09 0.15 0.44 0.25 0.73 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.36 0.21 0.56 0.18 0.03 0.37 -0.02 -0.14 0.10
Bristol, City of -0.19 -0.34 -0.04 0.33 0.23 0.44 0.60 0.39 1.31 0.01 -0.09 0.09 -0.30 -0.41 -0.18 -0.26 -0.43 -0.09
Bromley 0.10 0.04 0.15 0.65 0.65 0.66 0.47 0.28 0.74 0.26 0.39 0.16 0.19 0.08 0.29 0.12 0.03 0.21
Buckinghamshire 0.01 -0.14 0.17 0.12 -0.02 0.29 0.26 0.36 0.16 0.07 -0.04 0.18 -0.13 -0.29 0.02 0.00 -0.17 0.16
Bury -0.06 -0.21 0.11 0.32 0.13 0.50 0.07 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.32 0.00 0.74 -0.09 -0.13 -0.05 -0.12 -0.27 0.05
Calderdale -0.03 -0.14 0.08 0.16 0.13 0.19 0.43 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.52 0.50 0.57 -0.05 -0.13 0.01 -0.07 -0.19 0.06
Cambridgeshire 0.11 -0.04 0.26 0.56 0.48 0.65 1.13 0.92 1.42 0.43 0.20 0.71 0.17 0.04 0.32 0.08 -0.08 0.24
Camden 0.00 -0.30 0.23 0.11 -0.12 0.34 0.81 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.07 -0.27 0.28 -0.31 -0.55 -0.13 -0.10 -0.45 0.14
Central Bedfordshire -0.07 -0.21 0.07 0.27 0.28 0.25 0.74 0.13 1.22 0.33 -0.15 0.90 -0.07 -0.27 0.14 -0.08 -0.22 0.05
Cheshire East -0.15 -0.28 -0.02 0.32 -0.17 0.60 0.33 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.22 -0.18 -0.30 -0.31 -0.43 -0.17 -0.15 -0.28 -0.02
Cheshire West and Chester 0.04 -0.15 0.23 0.66 0.48 0.88 0.43 -0.38 0.91 -0.02 -0.10 0.11 0.18 -0.01 0.36 0.03 -0.15 0.22
City of London N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A*
Cornwall 0.03 -0.08 0.14 0.67 0.68 0.65 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* -0.14 -0.32 0.10 0.09 0.25 -0.05 0.03 -0.10 0.15
County Durham -0.13 -0.24 -0.01 0.74 0.62 0.88 0.59 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.29 -0.45 -0.13 -0.03 -0.87 0.34 -0.12 -0.24 0.00
Coventry -0.05 -0.19 0.10 0.47 0.31 0.64 0.43 -0.31 0.87 0.35 0.06 0.59 -0.24 -0.41 -0.05 -0.22 -0.33 -0.09
Croydon 0.08 -0.07 0.22 0.47 0.45 0.50 0.45 0.33 0.51 0.10 -0.06 0.28 -0.08 -0.18 0.00 0.01 -0.23 0.21
Cumbria -0.23 -0.39 -0.05 0.51 0.34 0.70 0.11 -0.01 0.18 -0.48 -0.80 -0.05 0.11 0.19 0.05 -0.23 -0.40 -0.06
Darlington -0.39 -0.56 -0.20 -0.08 -0.64 0.22 withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* -0.35 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.39 -0.54 -0.23
Derby -0.17 -0.34 0.00 0.02 -0.23 0.24 0.97 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.13 -0.34 0.03 -0.31 -0.39 -0.24 -0.22 -0.37 -0.06
Derbyshire -0.27 -0.41 -0.13 -0.04 -0.25 0.24 0.07 0.02 0.20 0.13 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.29 -0.45 -0.14 -0.27 -0.41 -0.13
Devon -0.02 -0.15 0.12 0.56 0.22 0.97 0.98 0.55 1.29 0.82 0.50 1.14 0.06 -0.06 0.21 -0.03 -0.16 0.11
Doncaster -0.21 -0.35 -0.07 0.25 0.27 0.24 0.43 0.10 0.57 -0.13 -0.22 -0.04 -0.04 -0.27 0.17 -0.24 -0.37 -0.09
Dorset -0.04 -0.15 0.06 0.43 0.24 0.64 0.85 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.83 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.07 -0.02 -0.15 -0.06 -0.16 0.05
Dudley -0.22 -0.37 -0.06 0.10 -0.15 0.38 0.13 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.04 -0.15 0.21 -0.36 -0.40 -0.31 -0.26 -0.40 -0.10
Ealing 0.28 0.13 0.44 0.42 0.37 0.47 0.71 N/A* 0.71 0.17 -0.06 0.36 0.11 -0.14 0.31 0.17 -0.01 0.37
East Riding of Yorkshire 0.10 -0.03 0.23 0.19 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.09 -0.09 0.33 0.09 -0.03 0.22
East Sussex 0.04 -0.10 0.19 0.90 0.70 1.19 0.77 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.68 -0.26 1.21 0.11 -0.06 0.29 0.04 -0.09 0.16
Enfield 0.05 -0.12 0.23 0.30 0.11 0.51 0.52 0.30 0.71 0.10 -0.11 0.31 -0.13 -0.34 0.13 0.02 -0.13 0.18
Essex 0.00 -0.12 0.12 0.49 0.44 0.55 0.57 0.53 0.61 0.40 0.24 0.53 0.05 -0.06 0.16 -0.02 -0.14 0.10
Gateshead -0.15 -0.20 -0.09 0.85 0.76 0.99 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 1.24 0.46 1.80 0.27 0.44 0.08 -0.19 -0.24 -0.13
Gloucestershire -0.05 -0.17 0.09 0.49 0.31 0.72 0.93 0.60 1.06 -0.29 -0.57 0.05 -0.25 -0.55 0.05 -0.05 -0.17 0.08
Greenwich -0.01 -0.10 0.08 0.66 0.55 0.77 0.36 0.13 0.66 0.21 0.09 0.33 -0.11 -0.22 -0.02 -0.23 -0.33 -0.13
Hackney 0.35 0.23 0.45 0.45 0.37 0.52 0.81 0.51 1.25 0.25 0.12 0.36 0.27 0.19 0.32 0.39 0.24 0.50
Halton -0.19 -0.30 -0.07 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.01 -0.10 0.10 -0.19 -0.31 -0.08
Hammersmith and Fulham 0.12 -0.02 0.26 0.23 0.18 0.31 0.76 N/A* 0.76 0.01 -0.11 0.12 -0.03 -0.27 0.26 0.15 0.05 0.24
Hampshire -0.03 -0.18 0.13 0.55 0.38 0.75 0.64 0.57 0.83 0.27 0.15 0.41 -0.09 -0.34 0.20 -0.05 -0.20 0.11
Haringey 0.28 0.18 0.37 0.39 0.37 0.41 0.82 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.13 -0.07 0.33 0.18 0.09 0.26 0.35 0.30 0.40
Harrow 0.32 0.11 0.52 0.46 0.28 0.67 0.28 -0.85 1.19 0.24 0.03 0.42 0.10 -0.14 0.30 0.19 -0.03 0.40
Hartlepool -0.33 -0.49 -0.18 0.30 0.00 0.61 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.12 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.34 -0.51 -0.19
Havering -0.14 -0.28 0.00 0.40 0.26 0.52 0.29 0.18 0.56 0.13 -0.19 0.46 -0.14 -0.23 -0.05 -0.21 -0.32 -0.10
Herefordshire, County of -0.03 -0.22 0.19 0.77 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 1.60 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.15 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.91 0.51 1.48 -0.05 -0.23 0.17
Hertfordshire 0.06 -0.09 0.22 0.44 0.27 0.62 0.74 0.82 0.65 0.28 0.12 0.42 0.02 -0.14 0.19 0.02 -0.13 0.18
Hillingdon 0.06 -0.05 0.19 0.43 0.28 0.60 0.73 1.17 0.47 0.17 -0.05 0.44 0.10 0.02 0.18 -0.23 -0.30 -0.15
Hounslow 0.29 0.15 0.43 0.62 0.53 0.72 0.91 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.30 0.08 0.58 0.31 0.20 0.40 0.18 0.11 0.25
Isle of Wight -0.33 -0.51 -0.14 -0.06 -0.48 0.57 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* -0.31 -0.46 -0.02 -0.33 -0.52 -0.14
Isles of Scilly 0.00 0.13 -0.13 N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* N/A* -0.05 0.13 -0.22
Islington 0.19 0.12 0.28 0.51 0.44 0.58 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* 0.22 0.19 0.25 0.04 -0.03 0.16 0.03 -0.06 0.15
Kensington and Chelsea 0.34 0.29 0.41 0.49 0.53 0.47 withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* withheld to protect confidentiality 0.32 0.19 0.50 0.26 0.25 0.28 0.31 0.23 0.46
Kent -0.04 -0.18 0.10 0.61 0.56 0.67 0.77 0.72 0.83 0.41 0.27 0.55 0.11 0.02 0.20 -0.08 -0.23 0.07
Kingston upon Hull, City of 0.03 -0.02 0.08 0.43 0.49 0.35 withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* withheld to protect confidentiality 0.52 0.89 0.27 0.31 0.24 0.46 0.05 0.00 0.10
Kingston upon Thames 0.34 0.26 0.41 0.58 0.54 0.62 0.62 0.82 0.49 0.23 0.00 0.53 0.37 0.24 0.45 0.23 0.15 0.30
Kirklees -0.11 -0.29 0.07 0.12 -0.05 0.29 0.77 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.01 -0.28 0.32 -0.28 -0.50 -0.03 -0.19 -0.36 -0.01
Knowsley -0.89 -1.05 -0.70 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.44 -0.18 -0.76 -0.91 -1.08 -0.71
Lambeth 0.06 -0.09 0.22 0.32 0.27 0.38 0.25 0.09 0.40 -0.02 -0.20 0.16 -0.05 -0.14 0.08 0.20 0.05 0.39
Lancashire -0.11 -0.26 0.05 0.20 -0.05 0.47 0.62 0.83 0.47 0.10 -0.34 0.55 -0.14 -0.31 0.01 -0.14 -0.28 0.01
Leeds -0.06 -0.21 0.10 0.08 -0.14 0.31 1.27 1.03 1.49 0.27 0.16 0.39 -0.19 -0.36 -0.01 -0.09 -0.23 0.05
Leicester -0.14 -0.31 0.05 0.19 0.01 0.38 withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* withheld to protect confidentiality 0.11 -0.06 0.28 -0.52 -0.64 -0.39 -0.55 -0.72 -0.37
Leicestershire -0.12 -0.27 0.05 0.64 0.49 0.80 0.47 0.47 0.48 0.20 0.20 0.21 -0.03 -0.17 0.14 -0.19 -0.35 -0.02
Lewisham -0.14 -0.35 0.10 0.41 0.23 0.60 0.70 0.75 0.68 -0.19 -0.46 0.13 -0.21 -0.32 -0.09 -0.21 -0.34 -0.04
Lincolnshire -0.11 -0.25 0.04 0.50 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.53 0.53 0.52 0.07 0.19 -0.07 0.20 0.09 0.33 -0.12 -0.27 0.03
Liverpool -0.35 -0.42 -0.27 0.31 0.21 0.45 0.61 0.51 0.72 0.01 -0.20 0.19 -0.47 -0.63 -0.31 -0.38 -0.46 -0.30
Luton 0.01 -0.09 0.11 0.22 0.21 0.24 -0.02 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.20 -0.09 0.47 -0.25 -0.41 -0.11 -0.23 -0.34 -0.11
Manchester -0.03 -0.16 0.11 0.44 0.32 0.56 0.94 0.85 1.04 0.24 0.09 0.42 -0.28 -0.33 -0.24 -0.32 -0.46 -0.17
Medway 0.05 -0.04 0.14 0.66 0.63 0.68 0.69 0.47 0.87 0.30 0.28 0.32 0.04 -0.15 0.16 -0.01 -0.09 0.08
Merton 0.27 0.10 0.45 0.54 0.48 0.61 1.45 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.24 -0.05 0.52 0.23 0.22 0.24 0.21 0.01 0.41
Middlesbrough -0.12 -0.25 0.00 0.80 0.78 0.82 N/A* N/A* N/A* 0.92 0.69 1.19 0.24 0.00 0.42 -0.22 -0.31 -0.14
Milton Keynes -0.12 -0.26 0.03 0.23 0.00 0.51 0.50 0.14 1.50 0.37 0.24 0.51 -0.12 -0.25 0.02 -0.23 -0.37 -0.09
Newcastle upon Tyne -0.07 -0.12 -0.03 0.56 0.52 0.62 0.38 0.37 0.39 0.74 0.32 1.04 0.43 0.21 0.65 -0.19 -0.23 -0.15
Newham 0.23 0.10 0.37 0.40 0.28 0.52 0.59 0.54 0.65 0.16 0.04 0.30 -0.18 -0.42 0.07 -0.07 -0.17 0.06
Norfolk 0.01 -0.10 0.14 0.63 0.38 0.82 0.48 0.24 0.72 0.57 0.38 0.87 0.07 -0.03 0.18 0.00 -0.11 0.12
North East Lincolnshire -0.06 -0.15 0.03 0.23 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.75 withheld to protect confidentiality 0.13 0.07 0.25 -0.08 -0.18 0.01
North Lincolnshire 0.08 -0.04 0.21 0.53 0.32 0.69 0.76 0.76 N/A* 0.31 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.37 0.17 0.54 0.06 -0.05 0.18
North Somerset -0.12 -0.26 0.03 0.11 0.07 0.15 0.61 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.28 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.18 0.00 0.36 -0.13 -0.27 0.02
North Tyneside -0.04 -0.14 0.06 0.27 -0.19 0.48 1.30 1.34 1.27 0.34 0.04 0.84 0.26 0.46 0.09 -0.06 -0.16 0.04
North Yorkshire 0.04 -0.09 0.18 0.43 0.31 0.61 0.96 0.46 1.39 0.49 0.11 0.97 0.18 0.14 0.23 0.03 -0.10 0.16
Northamptonshire -0.13 -0.29 0.04 0.45 0.31 0.59 0.78 0.95 0.64 0.27 0.16 0.37 -0.05 -0.20 0.09 -0.18 -0.35 -0.01
Northumberland -0.14 -0.22 -0.05 0.64 0.54 0.77 0.79 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.24 0.46 0.11 -0.16 -0.24 -0.07
Nottingham -0.35 -0.50 -0.19 0.10 -0.06 0.26 withheld to protect confidentiality 1.36 withheld to protect confidentiality -0.06 -0.30 0.17 -0.49 -0.60 -0.39 -0.52 -0.67 -0.37
Nottinghamshire -0.04 -0.17 0.10 0.36 0.26 0.47 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.74 0.08 -0.12 0.22 -0.20 -0.43 0.06 -0.04 -0.17 0.09
Oldham -0.34 -0.58 -0.09 0.07 -0.16 0.31 1.05 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.16 0.28 0.01 -0.45 -0.50 -0.42 -0.49 -0.73 -0.24
Oxfordshire 0.01 -0.15 0.18 0.32 0.14 0.55 0.91 0.54 1.12 0.37 0.23 0.59 -0.05 -0.09 -0.01 -0.02 -0.19 0.15
Peterborough -0.03 -0.17 0.12 0.20 0.12 0.28 0.55 0.79 0.41 0.49 0.27 0.80 -0.01 -0.29 0.27 -0.10 -0.27 0.06
Plymouth -0.14 -0.30 0.03 0.73 0.81 0.65 1.43 1.82 0.90 0.55 0.26 1.09 0.02 -0.42 0.31 -0.16 -0.32 0.01
Poole 0.04 -0.13 0.23 0.87 0.49 1.47 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* 0.49 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.25 0.12 0.39 0.01 -0.16 0.20
Portsmouth -0.17 -0.34 0.02 0.53 0.17 0.78 0.50 0.36 0.69 0.87 0.80 0.96 0.41 0.21 0.57 -0.26 -0.42 -0.08
Reading -0.11 -0.18 -0.03 0.38 0.45 0.34 0.87 0.94 0.79 0.09 0.06 0.11 -0.49 -0.41 -0.57 -0.25 -0.34 -0.12
Redbridge 0.28 0.11 0.47 0.43 0.28 0.60 0.82 0.62 1.16 0.21 -0.05 0.44 -0.01 -0.39 0.36 0.14 -0.03 0.31
Redcar and Cleveland -0.30 -0.40 -0.18 0.08 -0.09 0.28 withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* 0.00 -0.26 0.21 -0.31 -0.42 -0.19
Richmond upon Thames 0.10 -0.07 0.24 0.42 0.21 0.62 0.96 0.73 1.30 -0.04 -0.31 0.25 -0.02 -0.33 0.28 0.08 -0.05 0.20
Rochdale -0.08 -0.22 0.07 0.23 0.02 0.45 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* 0.69 0.42 0.95 0.13 0.14 0.12 -0.22 -0.34 -0.10
Rotherham 0.04 -0.06 0.15 0.21 0.07 0.33 0.68 0.94 0.41 0.65 0.61 0.69 -0.19 -0.41 0.09 0.02 -0.08 0.13
Rutland 0.29 0.14 0.46 0.53 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality N/A* N/A* N/A* 0.37 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.02 -0.33 0.23 0.29 0.14 0.47
Salford -0.30 -0.39 -0.21 0.75 0.70 0.79 0.08 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.47 0.40 0.56 -0.08 -0.12 -0.04 -0.37 -0.48 -0.27
Sandwell -0.29 -0.39 -0.16 0.20 0.05 0.37 1.11 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.14 -0.24 -0.03 -0.39 -0.44 -0.31 -0.52 -0.63 -0.40
Sefton -0.24 -0.39 -0.09 0.48 0.19 0.81 0.11 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.27 0.02 0.56 -0.07 -0.12 -0.02 -0.21 -0.38 -0.03
Sheffield 0.01 -0.14 0.16 0.26 0.08 0.47 0.82 0.20 1.26 0.27 0.16 0.38 -0.12 -0.44 0.19 -0.05 -0.18 0.09
Shropshire -0.05 -0.19 0.10 0.45 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.16 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.03 -0.11 0.26 -0.05 -0.20 0.09
Slough 0.22 0.07 0.36 0.34 0.21 0.47 0.86 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.28 0.05 0.53 0.09 -0.14 0.36 -0.05 -0.16 0.06
Solihull -0.09 -0.22 0.05 0.26 0.13 0.42 0.62 0.72 0.47 -0.10 -0.41 0.15 -0.21 -0.24 -0.18 -0.12 -0.25 0.03
Somerset 0.03 -0.11 0.17 0.64 0.51 0.79 0.39 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.01 -0.38 0.36 0.17 0.09 0.23 0.02 -0.12 0.16
South Gloucestershire -0.23 -0.31 -0.15 0.36 0.19 0.64 0.61 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.20 -0.24 -0.12 -0.14 -0.03 -0.29 -0.25 -0.33 -0.16
South Tyneside -0.16 -0.30 -0.02 0.24 -0.23 0.65 N/A* N/A* N/A* -0.18 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.32 -0.29 -0.39 -0.17 -0.30 -0.05
Southampton -0.12 -0.25 0.01 0.67 0.56 0.76 0.78 0.78 0.77 0.59 0.61 0.57 -0.09 -0.20 -0.01 -0.23 -0.37 -0.10
Southend-on-Sea -0.01 -0.06 0.05 0.46 0.44 0.48 0.61 0.50 0.74 0.38 0.31 0.44 -0.12 -0.21 -0.04 -0.07 -0.14 -0.01
Southwark 0.22 0.15 0.30 0.53 0.34 0.67 0.77 0.67 0.94 0.34 0.23 0.43 0.03 -0.03 0.11 -0.01 -0.09 0.06
St. Helens -0.33 -0.45 -0.20 0.66 0.75 0.60 0.60 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.08 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.09 -0.55 0.31 -0.33 -0.46 -0.19
Staffordshire -0.10 -0.26 0.07 0.26 0.13 0.41 1.27 0.82 1.59 0.20 -0.20 0.41 -0.06 -0.25 0.11 -0.11 -0.27 0.05
Stockport 0.02 -0.11 0.14 0.32 0.10 0.54 0.79 0.53 0.96 0.36 0.19 0.70 0.16 -0.06 0.45 -0.01 -0.14 0.11
Stockton-on-Tees -0.17 -0.31 0.00 0.34 0.00 0.66 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.47 withheld to protect confidentiality -0.27 -0.25 -0.30 -0.20 -0.33 -0.05
Stoke-on-Trent -0.08 -0.20 0.04 0.25 0.11 0.41 0.43 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.10 -0.02 0.23 0.02 -0.09 0.14 -0.15 -0.27 -0.03
Suffolk 0.02 -0.09 0.13 0.70 0.67 0.73 0.67 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.35 0.13 0.51 0.07 -0.11 0.21 0.00 -0.11 0.12
Sunderland -0.17 -0.27 -0.08 0.48 0.39 0.54 0.98 N/A* 0.98 0.22 -0.37 0.55 0.09 -0.56 0.60 -0.20 -0.28 -0.12
Surrey 0.14 -0.01 0.29 0.57 0.42 0.73 0.76 0.55 1.06 0.32 0.12 0.57 0.20 0.07 0.34 0.10 -0.04 0.25
Sutton 0.17 0.00 0.34 0.62 0.48 0.75 0.64 0.56 0.73 0.27 0.09 0.45 0.15 -0.08 0.39 0.00 -0.15 0.16
Swindon -0.17 -0.32 -0.02 0.48 0.48 0.47 0.18 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.19 0.08 0.30 -0.09 -0.26 0.08 -0.24 -0.40 -0.08
Tameside -0.13 -0.22 -0.04 0.42 0.13 0.71 0.62 0.78 0.49 0.64 0.64 0.64 -0.07 -0.43 0.38 -0.22 -0.28 -0.16
Telford and Wrekin -0.15 -0.29 0.03 0.04 -0.09 0.31 0.45 -0.01 0.90 0.34 0.31 0.36 -0.08 -0.21 0.06 -0.17 -0.32 0.00
Thurrock -0.01 -0.15 0.12 0.49 0.41 0.56 0.78 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.48 0.44 0.50 0.29 0.15 0.45 -0.11 -0.26 0.04
Torbay -0.09 -0.19 0.03 0.73 0.67 0.78 0.54 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.40 0.75 0.06 0.27 0.40 0.16 -0.02 -0.13 0.11
Tower Hamlets 0.15 0.04 0.26 0.31 0.21 0.41 0.99 0.99 1.00 0.17 0.08 0.26 -0.45 -0.48 -0.41 -0.43 -0.54 -0.30
Trafford 0.05 -0.07 0.17 0.23 0.10 0.38 0.51 0.36 0.67 0.08 -0.07 0.22 0.05 0.00 0.10 0.01 -0.12 0.13
Wakefield 0.06 -0.09 0.23 0.48 0.08 0.82 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.31 0.34 0.24 0.12 -0.16 0.33 0.04 -0.10 0.20
Walsall -0.24 -0.39 -0.08 0.13 0.04 0.24 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.12 -0.08 0.37 -0.40 -0.63 -0.13 -0.36 -0.51 -0.19
Waltham Forest 0.23 0.06 0.39 0.44 0.25 0.62 0.95 1.30 0.68 0.07 -0.18 0.27 0.03 -0.07 0.12 0.21 0.07 0.35
Wandsworth 0.15 0.05 0.25 0.49 0.52 0.46 0.54 0.67 0.46 0.02 -0.12 0.18 -0.04 -0.26 0.22 0.10 -0.01 0.20
Warrington -0.16 -0.29 -0.02 0.35 0.25 0.49 0.52 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.19 0.22 0.17 -0.25 -0.41 -0.02 -0.18 -0.31 -0.03
Warwickshire 0.02 -0.09 0.13 0.48 0.36 0.58 0.59 0.34 0.88 0.24 -0.32 0.66 -0.01 0.01 -0.03 -0.01 -0.11 0.10
West Berkshire 0.07 -0.07 0.21 0.48 0.41 0.59 0.74 0.91 0.34 -0.19 -0.15 -0.23 0.14 0.00 0.24 0.10 -0.04 0.24
West Sussex 0.10 -0.03 0.24 0.52 0.40 0.66 0.58 0.51 0.63 0.21 0.19 0.22 0.15 0.09 0.21 0.08 -0.05 0.22
Westminster 0.32 0.09 0.53 0.45 0.30 0.61 0.72 0.82 0.58 0.10 -0.16 0.45 0.24 0.02 0.44 0.30 0.00 0.49
Wigan -0.09 -0.25 0.07 0.59 0.38 1.07 0.62 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.15 -0.11 0.28 0.08 -0.22 0.29 -0.10 -0.26 0.06
Wiltshire 0.01 -0.12 0.14 0.63 0.46 0.83 0.97 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality 0.35 0.37 0.34 -0.06 -0.18 0.08 0.00 -0.13 0.13
Windsor and Maidenhead 0.16 0.08 0.25 0.23 0.12 0.35 0.42 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.10 -0.38 0.43 0.44 0.40 0.47 0.13 0.06 0.19
Wirral -0.04 -0.21 0.10 0.80 0.70 0.86 0.87 0.91 0.84 0.83 withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality -0.14 -0.31 0.03 -0.06 -0.22 0.08
Wokingham 0.19 -0.01