Fear of crime
1. Main facts and figures
in 2015/16, around one-fifth of people aged 16 and over in England and Wales believed that they were either ‘very likely’ or ‘fairly likely’ to be a victim of crime in the next year
overall, the figures for fear of crime have remained consistent between 2013/14 and 2015/16
in 2015/16, a smaller proportion of White people reported a fear of crime compared with Asian people, Black people, and those from the Other ethnic group
Asian people and those from the Other ethnic group had the highest levels of fear of crime
The ethnic categories used in this data
Where possible, this data is broken down by the 18 ethnic categories listed in the 2011 Census. There's a separate category for respondents whose ethnicity wasn't known.
The 2011 Census categories are as follows:
- English/ Welsh/ Scottish/ Northern Irish/ British
- Gypsy, Traveller or Irish Traveller
- Any other White background
Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups:
- White and Black Caribbean
- White and Black African
- White and Asian
- Any other Mixed/ Multiple ethnic background
- Any other Asian background
- Any other Black/African/Caribbean background
Other ethnic group:
- Any other ethnic group
To analyse the data by gender, age group and socio-economic group, the Office for National Statistics uses the following 5 broad ethnic categories:
- Asian / Asian British
- Black / African / Caribbean / Black British
- Mixed / Multiple ethnic groups
- Other ethnic group
2. By ethnicity over time
|Ethnicity||2013/14 %||2013/14 Number||2014/15 %||2014/15 Number||2015/16 %||2015/16 Number|
|Black other||withheld because a small sample size makes it unreliable||45||26||57||28||58|
|Mixed White/Black African||withheld because a small sample size makes it unreliable||45||withheld because a small sample size makes it unreliable||45||withheld because a small sample size makes it unreliable||43|
|Mixed White/Black Caribbean||25||119||21||97||18||133|
|White Gypsy/Traveller||withheld because a small sample size makes it unreliable||12||withheld because a small sample size makes it unreliable||10||withheld because a small sample size makes it unreliable||15|
3. By ethnicity and gender
|Ethnicity||All %||All Number||Male %||Male Number||Female %||Female Number|
4. By ethnicity and age group
|Age group||Asian %||Asian Number||Black %||Black Number||Mixed %||Mixed Number||White %||White Number||Other %||Other Number|
|65-74||28||329||34||152||21||61||15||15,539||withheld because a small sample size makes it unreliable||41|
|75+||27||135||14||128||withheld because a small sample size makes it unreliable||26||9||12,635||withheld because a small sample size makes it unreliable||28|
5. By ethnicity and socio-economic group
|Socio-economic group||Asian %||Asian Number||Black %||Black Number||Mixed %||Mixed Number||White %||White Number||Other %||Other Number|
|Managerial and professional occupations||28||1,618||26||778||21||332||17||31,910||28||195|
|Routine and manual occupations||30||1,389||28||954||23||304||19||32,943||23||167|
|Never worked and long-term unemployed||26||556||19||226||30||55||20||2,758||34||97|
|Full time students||23||418||22||221||25||101||15||2,442||22||102|
|Not classified||withheld because a small sample size makes it unreliable||40||withheld because a small sample size makes it unreliable||21||withheld because a small sample size makes it unreliable||4||17||487||withheld because a small sample size makes it unreliable||2|
CSEW estimates are based on analysis of structured face-to-face interviews carried out using computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI). In 2015/16, the response rate was 72%.
The CSEW is a household sample survey and, as such, estimates are based on a representative sample of the population of England and Wales aged 16 and over. A sample, as used in the CSEW, is a small-scale representation of the population from which it is drawn.
Weighting is used to adjust the results of a survey to make them representative of the population and improve their accuracy.
For example, a survey which contains 25% women and 75% men will not accurately reflect the views of the general population, which we know has an even 50/50 split.
Statisticians rebalance or ‘weight’ the survey results to more accurately represent the general population. This helps to make them more reliable.
Survey weights are usually applied to make sure the survey sample has broadly the same gender, age, ethnic and geographic make up as the general population.
The CSEW collects information from approximately 35,000 households each year. Since those responses reflect only a fraction of the total population of England and Wales, a process is used to give different weights to different households and individuals based on their sex, age and region, in such a way that the weighted distribution of responding household and individuals in these households matches the known distribution in the population as a whole.
First, weights are applied to the raw data to compensate for:
- unequal address selection probabilities (given, some areas are more populated than others)
- the observed variation in response rates between different types of neighbourhood
- situations in which only one dwelling unit can be selected in multiple ‘dwelling unit' households
- different probabilities of a respondent being selected based on different sized households
Second, calibration weighting is used to make adjustments for known differentials in response rates between different regions and between different age by six sub-groups.
The National Statistics Socio-economic Classification (NS-SEC) categorises members of the adult public in the UK according to their occupational status.
The NS-SEC categories are:
- managerial and professional occupations
- intermediate occupations (clerical, sales, service)
- routine and manual occupations
- never worked and long-term unemployed
- full-time students
- not classified
Suppression rules and disclosure control
Estimates from the Crime Survey for England and Wales have National Statistics status.
National Statistics are a subset of official statistics which have been certified by the UK Statistics Authority as compliant with its Code of Practice for Official Statistics, including requirements on disclosure control.
Estimates based on a number of respondents (known as the 'unweighted base') that is less than 50 are suppressed as these estimates are deemed to be less reliable.
Estimates in the charts and tables are given to the nearest whole number.
You can see more detailed estimates (rounded to 1 decimal place) if you download the data.
Further technical information
Since the Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW) is based on a sample of the population, estimates have a margin of quantifiable and non-quantifiable error associated with them.
Non-quantifiable error includes:
- when respondents have recalled crimes in the reference period that actually occurred outside that period
- crimes that did occur in the reference period that were not mentioned at all (either because respondents failed to recall a fairly trivial incident or, conversely, because they did not want to disclose an incident, such as a domestic assault)
- respondents saying they reported crimes to police when they did not (a “socially desirable” response)
- some incidents reported during the interview being miscoded (‘interviewer or coder error’)
7. Data sources
Type of data
Type of statistic
Office for National Statistics
Purpose of data source
The Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW) is a face-to-face survey in which people living in households in England and Wales are asked about their experiences of a selected range of criminal offences in the 12 months prior to the interview.
The CSEW is able to capture a broad range of victim-based crimes experienced by those interviewed, not just those that have been reported to, and recorded by, the police.
8. Download the data
This file contains the following: ethnicity, year, geography, gender, socio-economic status, value, denominator