In this data, the police workforce is made up of police officers of all ranks, police community support officers (PCSOs), designated officers, traffic wardens and staff in other roles (referred to in charts and tables as ‘police staff’).
This data focuses initially on police officers, and widens to include the whole workforce.
Figures for the police workforce, including police officers, are based on full-time equivalent (FTE) staff numbers – for example, someone who works 2.5 days a week is counted as 0.5 FTE.
Although the data includes traffic wardens, very few remain in the police workforce following the transfer of this duty to local authorities.
Separately, figures are also presented for special constables – members of the public who volunteer to help the police – although they are not counted as part of the police workforce. Special constable figures are based on a ‘headcount’ – the total number of people in that role, regardless of whether they work part-time or full-time.
Data is derived from the personnel records for the 43 police forces in England and Wales, and the British Transport Police.
Population estimates are based on the 2011 Census, which are the figures used in most Home Office statistical publications. It is likely that there have been some population changes since 2011 that aren't accounted for in this data. For that reason, these figures should be considered estimates only.
Since the British Transport Police covers all of England and Wales, a rate per population per region has not been calculated. Similarly, the City of London Police serves a very large daytime population compared with its number of residents, so it is not meaningful to show a rate per population for this force.
The percentages given here are based only on those whose ethnicity is known. Ethnicity isn’t known for 2% of police officers, 3% of the total police workforce, and 7% of special constables. Numbers of staff with unknown ethnicity are included in the tables for reference.