Maths results for 6 to 7 year olds

Published

1. Main facts and figures

  • 76% of pupils in year 2 met the expected standard in maths in the 2018 to 2019 school year
  • 22% of pupils met the higher standard
  • pupils from the Chinese ethnic group were most likely out of all ethnic groups to meet both the expected and higher standards
  • White Gypsy and Roma pupils were least likely out of all ethnic groups to meet the expected standard
  • they were also least likely to meet the higher standard, along with White Irish Traveller pupils
  • in every ethnic group except White Gypsy and Roma, girls were more likely than boys to meet the expected standard
  • in every ethnic group except White Gypsy and Roma and White Irish Traveller, boys were more likely than girls to meet the higher standard
  • in every ethnic group, pupils eligible for free school meals were less likely to meet the expected standard than other pupils
Things you need to know

In the 2018 to 2019 school year, 666,392 pupils were assessed for maths in year 2 (when they were 6 or 7 years old).

Ethnicity was known for 98.6% of pupils. Of those:

  • 74% were White
  • 11% were Asian
  • 6% had Mixed ethnic backgrounds
  • 5% were Black
  • 0.5% were from the Chinese ethnic group
  • 2% were from Other ethnic groups

At the end of year 2, teachers assess pupils in reading, writing, maths and science. Pupils also take tests in reading and maths. This data only includes teacher assessments because schools don’t submit test data to the Department of Education.

Results for the Isles of Scilly and the City of London are not included in local authority breakdowns as they only have 1 school each.

There were 2,529 Gypsy and Roma pupils and 682 Traveller of Irish Heritage pupils. Please use caution when interpreting figures for these groups as they are based on small numbers of pupils.

This data only includes pupils in state-funded schools.

107,158 pupils (16%) were eligible for free school meals.

School-level data is not published for key stage 1 subjects.

What the data measures

This data measures the percentage of pupils who met the expected and higher standards in maths.

Teachers assess pupils at the end of key stage 1 (year 2), when children are 6 or 7 years old.

They assess each pupil against the following standards:

  • expected standard – pupils are 'working at the expected standard' or 'working at greater depth within the expected standard'
  • higher standard – pupils are 'working at a greater depth within the expected standard'
The ethnic categories used in this data

This data groups ethnicities from the Department for Education’s school census. These groupings are based on the 2001 Census of England and Wales, with 2 exceptions:

  • Traveller of Irish Heritage and Gypsy and Roma pupils are in separate categories
  • the Chinese ethnic group is a separate category from Asian

These changes were made after consultations with local authorities and lobby groups.

Local authority data is only provided for 6 ethnic groups:

  • Asian
  • Black
  • Chinese
  • Mixed
  • White
  • Other

2. By ethnicity

Percentage of pupils meeting the expected and higher standards in maths, by ethnicity
Ethnicity Expected standard Higher standard
All 76 22
Asian 78 24
Bangladeshi 76 23
Indian 85 32
Pakistani 73 18
Asian other 79 27
Black 74 19
Black African 76 20
Black Caribbean 68 13
Black other 72 18
Chinese 91 48
Mixed 76 23
Mixed White/Asian 82 29
Mixed White/Black African 76 21
Mixed White/Black Caribbean 70 16
Mixed other 77 24
White 76 21
White British 76 22
White Irish 79 26
Gypsy/Roma 34 4
Irish Traveller 37 4
White other 75 21
Other 72 19
Unknown 58 15

Download table data for ‘By ethnicity’ (CSV) Source data for ‘By ethnicity’ (CSV)

Summary of Maths results for 6 to 7 year olds By ethnicity Summary

Data for the 2018 to 2019 school year shows that:

  • 76% of pupils met the expected standard in maths in year 2 (when they were 6 or 7 years old)
  • 22% met the higher standard
  • 91% of pupils from the Chinese ethnic group met the expected standard and 48% met the higher standard, the highest percentages out of all ethnic groups
  • 34% of White Gypsy and Roma pupils met the expected standard, the lowest percentage out of all ethnic groups
  • 4% of White Gypsy and Roma, and White Irish Traveller pupils met the higher standard, the lowest percentage out of all ethnic groups
  • 76% of White British pupils met the expected standard
  • 22% of White British pupils met the higher standard

3. By ethnicity and gender

Percentage of pupils meeting the expected and higher standards in maths, by ethnicity and gender
Boys Girls
Ethnicity Boys Expected standard Boys Higher standard Girls Expected standard Girls Higher standard
All 75 24 77 19
Asian 76 26 80 23
Bangladeshi 74 24 79 22
Indian 83 34 87 31
Pakistani 71 19 75 16
Asian other 77 29 81 25
Black 71 20 77 18
Black African 73 21 79 19
Black Caribbean 65 14 71 12
Black other 69 19 75 16
Chinese 90 52 92 45
Mixed 75 25 78 21
Mixed White/Asian 81 32 83 27
Mixed White/Black African 75 23 77 20
Mixed White/Black Caribbean 69 17 72 15
Mixed other 76 27 78 21
White 75 24 77 19
White British 75 24 77 19
White Irish 78 29 80 23
Gypsy/Roma 34 4 34 4
Irish Traveller 34 4 41 4
White other 74 24 76 19
Other 71 21 72 17
Unknown 58 17 59 14

Download table data for ‘By ethnicity and gender’ (CSV) Source data for ‘By ethnicity and gender’ (CSV)

Summary of Maths results for 6 to 7 year olds By ethnicity and gender Summary

This data shows that:

  • 77% of girls and 75% of boys met the expected standard
  • 24% of boys and 19% of girls met the higher standard
  • girls were more likely than boys to meet the expected standard in every ethnic group except White Gypsy and Roma, where the same percentage of girls and boys met the standard
  • boys were more likely than girls to meet the higher standard in every ethnic group except White Gypsy and Roma, and White Irish Traveller, where the same percentages of girls and boys met the standard
  • girls from the Chinese ethnic group were the most likely to meet the expected standard (92%)
  • boys from the Chinese ethnic group were most likely to meet the higher standard (52%)
  • White Gypsy and Roma boys and girls, and boys from the White Irish Traveller ethnic group, were least likely to meet the expected standard (34%)
  • boys and girls from the White Gypsy and Roma, and White Irish Traveller ethnic groups were least likely to meet the higher standard (4%)
  • at the expected standard, the biggest gap between girls and boys was in the White Irish Traveller ethnic group, where 41% of girls and 34% of boys met the standard
  • at the higher standard, the biggest gap between boys and girls was in the Chinese ethnic group, where 52% of boys and 45% of girls met the standard
  • among White British pupils, 77% of girls and 75% of boys met the expected standard, and 19% of girls and 24% of boys met the higher standard

4. By ethnicity and eligibility for free school meals

Percentage of pupils meeting the expected standard in maths, by ethnicity and eligibility for free school meals
Ethnicity FSM Non-FSM
% %
All 61 78
Asian 70 79
Bangladeshi 72 77
Indian 75 85
Pakistani 68 74
Asian other 69 81
Black 69 76
Black African 73 77
Black Caribbean 61 71
Black other 67 74
Chinese 88 91
Mixed 65 80
Mixed White/Asian 69 84
Mixed White/Black African 69 78
Mixed White/Black Caribbean 62 75
Mixed other 65 80
White 58 79
White British 59 79
White Irish 53 84
Gypsy/Roma 29 36
Irish Traveller 33 44
White other 62 76
Other 64 74
Unknown 57 58

Download table data for ‘By ethnicity and eligibility for free school meals’ (CSV) Source data for ‘By ethnicity and eligibility for free school meals’ (CSV)

Summary of Maths results for 6 to 7 year olds By ethnicity and eligibility for free school meals Summary

Eligibility for free school meals (FSM) in England is used as an indicator of deprivation.

The data for FSM-eligible pupils shows that:

  • 61% met the expected standard in maths, compared with 78% of non-eligible pupils
  • 88% from the Chinese ethnic group met the expected standard, the highest percentage out of all ethnic groups
  • 29% from the White Gypsy and Roma ethnic group met the standard, the lowest percentage
  • in every ethnic group, they were less likely to meet the expected standard than non-eligible pupils
  • the White Irish ethnic group had the biggest gap between FSM-eligible (53%) and non-eligible pupils (84%)
  • the Chinese ethnic group had the smallest gap between FSM-eligible (88%) and non-eligible pupils (91%), out of pupils whose ethnicity was known
  • 59% of White British pupils met the standard, compared with 79% of non-eligible White British pupils

5. By ethnicity and area

Percentage of pupils meeting the expected standard for maths, by ethnicity and area
Local authority All Asian Black Chinese Mixed White Other
% % % % % % %
Barking and Dagenham 76 79 78 89 75 73 77
Barnet 80 82 77 91 80 81 75
Barnsley 75 88 71 N/A* 74 75 89
Bath and North East Somerset 77 76 80 89 78 77 40
Bedford 70 64 74 100 64 72 76
Bexley 79 88 82 93 83 77 78
Birmingham 73 75 73 93 73 72 73
Blackburn with Darwen 75 76 67 100 78 75 71
Blackpool 72 83 55 80 75 72 50
Bolton 74 78 64 86 73 75 67
Bournemouth, Christchurch and Poole 78 80 74 96 80 78 76
Bracknell Forest 78 84 83 100 88 76 89
Bradford 74 77 73 100 74 73 69
Brent 76 81 74 93 78 77 69
Brighton and Hove 76 68 80 86 79 77 60
Bristol, City of 75 68 67 100 72 77 60
Bromley 80 90 77 95 80 80 86
Buckinghamshire 76 74 69 92 74 77 77
Bury 74 69 71 87 66 75 81
Calderdale 73 68 71 80 68 74 63
Cambridgeshire 75 80 69 90 76 75 70
Camden 75 71 73 92 76 78 71
Central Bedfordshire 77 84 74 90 74 77 79
Cheshire East 76 79 53 67 76 77 73
Cheshire West and Chester 73 81 57 86 79 73 52
City of London withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality
Cornwall 72 78 43 73 77 72 57
County Durham 77 78 92 93 78 77 60
Coventry 73 80 72 96 70 72 67
Croydon 78 84 76 86 76 78 77
Cumbria 75 79 50 86 81 75 65
Darlington 75 73 82 100 79 75 64
Derby 74 79 76 84 72 73 68
Derbyshire 75 74 90 79 82 75 69
Devon 74 65 80 81 79 74 58
Doncaster 74 78 75 93 75 75 71
Dorset 75 92 67 100 77 75 47
Dudley 73 73 67 86 71 73 63
Ealing 77 81 69 78 82 79 73
East Riding of Yorkshire 75 91 100 100 80 75 63
East Sussex 78 78 75 89 79 78 47
Enfield 73 80 70 95 79 72 74
Essex 77 82 77 95 78 76 78
Gateshead 75 79 69 90 85 75 62
Gloucestershire 74 79 74 92 70 75 54
Greenwich 80 91 83 91 82 74 86
Hackney 80 83 77 81 82 82 77
Halton 71 80 100 N/A* 79 71 78
Hammersmith and Fulham 80 83 74 86 80 83 74
Hampshire 80 81 80 89 81 80 77
Haringey 77 83 74 91 81 79 73
Harrow 80 86 74 100 78 73 75
Hartlepool 75 69 83 100 80 75 44
Havering 79 81 80 92 78 79 69
Herefordshire, County of 79 63 77 100 90 80 50
Hertfordshire 76 81 72 90 77 76 68
Hillingdon 78 84 77 91 75 75 75
Hounslow 79 84 73 100 79 78 78
Isle of Wight 70 71 75 100 80 70 50
Isles of Scilly withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality withheld to protect confidentiality
Islington 78 79 74 92 78 80 69
Kensington and Chelsea 82 80 81 88 82 84 78
Kent 78 83 83 95 81 77 75
Kingston upon Hull, City of 73 76 66 67 74 74 67
Kingston upon Thames 80 78 70 100 82 80 81
Kirklees 74 74 77 94 71 75 68
Knowsley 72 84 81 71 75 72 79
Lambeth 79 80 74 100 79 85 77
Lancashire 74 71 76 91 74 75 63
Leeds 71 67 69 86 71 72 70
Leicester 73 78 70 92 75 69 76
Leicestershire 76 83 72 86 76 76 66
Lewisham 76 78 71 92 78 80 82
Lincludingolnshire 73 85 74 89 78 73 69
Liverpool 71 74 70 88 70 71 64
Luton 73 76 70 82 72 69 73
Manchester 72 73 74 92 75 72 71
Medway 77 85 85 92 78 75 78
Merton 79 85 66 93 76 81 85
Middlesbrough 71 66 65 100 71 72 57
Milton Keynes 77 83 76 88 80 76 74
Newcastle upon Tyne 76 76 73 83 80 76 67
Newham 80 84 79 96 85 75 80
Norfolk 74 84 66 92 75 74 70
North East Lincludingolnshire 75 81 100 50 72 75 72
North Lincludingolnshire 76 73 71 100 80 76 46
North Somerset 76 75 75 80 77 77 83
North Tyneside 78 74 78 93 82 78 78
North Yorkshire 74 71 57 100 78 74 59
Northamptonshire 75 81 73 89 73 75 68
Northumberland 79 82 40 100 75 79 70
Nottingham 72 72 75 88 74 70 68
Nottinghamshire 75 78 68 97 72 75 72
Oldham 71 69 74 92 73 72 62
Oxfordshire 76 74 75 88 76 76 73
Peterborough 70 68 63 100 70 71 58
Plymouth 72 78 70 85 70 72 64
Portsmouth 73 79 63 76 71 73 65
Reading 73 77 71 100 69 73 74
Redbridge 80 83 77 92 79 77 64
Redcar and Cleveland 77 75 100 100 72 77 44
Richmond upon Thames 82 82 70 96 80 83 77
Rochdale 71 68 71 100 69 73 70
Rotherham 73 73 72 100 77 73 62
Rutland 79 67 83 100 63 80 75
Salford 75 80 76 100 80 74 71
Sandwell 74 77 75 87 76 72 67
Sefton 76 75 62 90 79 76 43
Sheffield 74 70 76 88 71 76 69
Shropshire 73 58 88 88 73 74 63
Slough 77 80 73 100 75 72 77
Solihull 77 79 66 100 77 77 70
Somerset 76 79 65 100 73 77 54
South Gloucestershire 80 90 77 95 74 80 90
South Tyneside 77 77 93 67 79 77 90
Southampton 74 75 80 100 74 73 73
Southend-on-Sea 78 78 88 100 78 78 64
Southwark 78 75 77 94 76 81 73
St. Helens 75 77 64 69 84 75 30
Staffordshire 78 79 74 96 73 79 67
Stockport 76 73 66 90 76 76 66
Stockton-on-Tees 79 81 77 89 77 79 57
Stoke-on-Trent 73 74 68 90 71 74 62
Suffolk 72 77 72 100 71 73 75
Sunderland 77 75 75 95 80 77 70
Surrey 78 81 74 94 79 78 78
Sutton 81 89 77 98 84 79 73
Swindon 77 81 82 92 76 77 80
Tameside 74 73 61 88 73 75 66
Telford and Wrekin 76 72 71 89 76 77 56
Thurrock 76 84 82 85 79 74 79
Torbay 75 83 50 100 72 76 70
Tower Hamlets 77 78 74 90 79 76 67
Trafford 80 82 69 91 76 80 74
Wakefield 73 68 77 94 74 74 69
Walsall 75 81 66 91 78 74 67
Waltham Forest 80 81 76 97 80 82 82
Wandsworth 81 77 72 94 79 87 71
Warrington 78 80 75 79 83 78 81
Warwickshire 77 82 83 96 75 76 71
West Berkshire 75 82 54 86 81 75 77
West Sussex 74 75 58 97 76 74 72
Westminster 77 83 72 94 78 78 72
Wigan 76 80 78 100 78 76 65
Wiltshire 74 69 71 81 73 74 79
Windsor and Maidenhead 80 78 78 60 81 81 78
Wirral 73 76 70 95 78 72 70
Wokingham 81 85 71 80 82 80 80
Wolverhampton 75 82 70 89 76 74 64
Worcestershire 76 71 61 76 78 76 70
York 77 81 82 92 82 76 65

Download table data for ‘By ethnicity and area’ (CSV) Source data for ‘By ethnicity and area’ (CSV)

Summary of Maths results for 6 to 7 year olds By ethnicity and area Summary

This data shows that:

  • out of all local authorities, White pupils were most likely to meet the expected standard in Wandsworth (87%) and least likely to in Luton (69%)
  • figures for other ethnic groups are based on small numbers of pupils, so reliable generalisations can't be made

6. Methodology

Local authorities collect key stage 1 data from 16,400 schools and submit it to the Department for Education.

This data is matched to school census records to identify pupils’ ethnicities and free school meal eligibility.

The data only covers state-funded schools in England. This includes local authority maintained schools, academies and special schools. It excludes pupils in independent schools, alternative provision and those who are home schooling.

Some data is broken down by pupils' eligibility for free school meals (FSM). To be eligible, their families must:

  • have applied for FSM at the time of the school census in January
  • be receiving a qualifying benefit like Jobseeker’s Allowance

We refer to pupils who are not eligible for FSM (or whose eligibility is unknown) as ‘non-FSM’.

Only pupils with a valid key stage 1 outcome for a subject are included in the calculations for that subject.

For maths, the valid outcomes are:

  • working at greater depth within the expected standard
  • working at the expected standard
  • working towards the expected standard
  • foundations for the expected standard
  • below the pre-key stage standard
  • absent
  • disapplied
  • maladministration

Suppression rules and disclosure control

Figures for the Isles of Scilly and City of London are not included as these local authorities have one school each.

The Department for Education (DfE) does not publish school-level information for writing.

You can also read DfE’s statistical policy statement on confidentiality (PDF, 194KB, 5 pages) (PDF opens in a new window or tab).

Rounding

Percentages given in charts, tables and downloads are rounded to the nearest whole number.

Related publications

Schools, pupils and their characteristics: June 2019.

Quality and methodology information

Further technical information

2019 key stage 1: assessment and reporting arrangements (ARA).

7. Data sources

Source

Type of data

Administrative data

Type of statistic

National Statistics

Publisher

Department for Education

Publication frequency

Yearly

Purpose of data source

This data provides results for the 2019 key stage 1 national curriculum assessments. The results are used to monitor pupils’ attainment in reading, writing, maths and science.

8. Download the data

KS1 Maths -- National - Spreadsheet (csv) 75 KB

This file contains the following: measure, ethnicity, ethnicity_type, time, time_type, geography, geography_type, geography_code, gender, age, FSM, value, value_type, denominator, numerator

KS1 Maths -- Local Authority - Spreadsheet (csv) 542 KB

This file contains the following: measure, ethnicity, ethnicity_type, time, time_type, geography, geography_type, geography_code, gender, age, value, value_type, denominator, numerator