Remand status at Crown Court

The main facts and figures show that:

  • in 2017, the number of defendants remanded in custody at the Crown Court fell for all ethnic groups compared with the years from 2014 to 2016
  • in 2017, defendants with Mixed ethnicity were more likely than any other ethnic group to be remanded in custody
  • from 2012 to 2017, White defendants were consistently less likely to be remanded in custody, and consistently more likely to have a remand status of ‘not remanded’, than any other ethnic group
Things you need to know

The data is taken from the Ministry of Justice's case management system for the Crown Court (known as 'CREST'), which only holds data for defendants remanded in Crown Court.

Magistrates' courts are not included because there is not enough ethnicity data for defendants dealt with by those courts. This also means that defendants who originally appeared in a magistrates' court, and later appeared in the Crown Court, are not be counted twice.

If a defendant has more than one remand status during court proceedings, only the most serious status will be recorded. For example, if a defendant is remanded on bail and then later remanded in custody, their status will be recorded as remanded in custody.

The data does not include details of the offence for which the defendant has been charged. It is likely that the severity of the offence will influence the type of remand status (bail or custody) given to the defendant.

What the data measures

This data measures the percentage of defendants at Crown Court who are either remanded on bail or custody, or not remanded. The data is broken down by ethnicity.

Remand is the way that people who are charged with a crime are dealt with until court hearings for that crime are completed. They can be:

  • remanded on bail, meaning they are allowed to return home until the court hearing (sometimes with certain conditions)
  • remanded in custody, which means they are held in prison
  • not remanded, meaning they have not been given bail or custody – for example, because they were given an immediate custodial sentence

After arrest, the police will decide a defendant’s remand status (bail or custody), which lasts until their first court hearing at the magistrates’ court. After that, the courts will decide the defendant’s remand status at each hearing in the proceedings. Different remand decisions for the same defendant may be made during the court process.

Some offences are dealt with entirely in the magistrates’ court, but others (usually more serious offences) go from there to the Crown Court. This data focuses on defendants in the Crown Court.

Defendants are classified by age group:

  • juveniles are aged under 18 years
  • young adults are aged between 18 and 20 years
  • adults are aged 21 years and over
The ethnic categories used in this data

This data uses the following broad ethnic groups based on the 2001 Census:

  • Asian/Asian British
  • Black/African/Caribbean/Black British
  • Mixed/Multiple ethnic groups
  • White
  • Other ethnic group (including Chinese)

There is also a ‘not stated’ category, made up of people whose ethnicity wasn’t known or who chose not to declare it. This analysis excludes those in the ‘not stated’ category (about 1 in 5 defendants).

Ethnic groups and how data on ethnicity is collected

Remand status by ethnicity

Percentage and number of defendants remanded at Crown Court, by ethnicity and remand status

Bail Custody Not remanded
Ethnicity % Number % Number % Number
Asian 50.1 2,839 36.2 2,054 13.7 779
Black 42.3 3,559 42.6 3,586 15.0 1,265
Mixed 41.0 883 43.5 937 15.5 334
White 44.1 23,130 35.8 18,780 20.1 10,569
Other inc Chinese 44.7 514 40.4 465 14.9 172

Download table data (CSV) Source data (CSV)

Summary

This data shows that:

  • in 2017, defendants from the White, Asian, and Other (including Chinese) ethnic groups were more likely to be remanded on bail than to be remanded in custody

Remands in custody by ethnicity over time

Percentage and number of defendants remanded in custody at Crown Court by ethnicity over time

Asian Black Mixed White Other inc Chinese
Year % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number
2009 36.5 2,303 47.9 4,710 43.5 1,001 31.8 21,106 52.1 911
2010 34.4 2,829 45.5 5,373 40.1 1,269 32.3 26,633 50.2 1,092
2011 34.7 2,887 45.8 5,544 42.1 1,467 34.1 28,274 45.7 938
2012 34.6 2,526 45.3 4,743 41.5 1,304 33.1 23,803 44.6 813
2013 34.8 2,383 46.0 4,377 43.0 1,257 34.8 23,460 46.8 770
2014 37.0 2,454 47.1 4,388 44.8 1,259 36.8 25,111 44.3 678
2015 36.7 2,478 45.8 4,190 42.8 1,199 36.5 24,623 43.7 694
2016 36.3 2,251 42.8 3,876 41.2 1,034 34.9 20,894 39.2 532
2017 36.2 2,054 42.6 3,586 43.5 937 35.8 18,780 40.4 465

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Summary

This data shows that:

  • for most years since 2011, Black defendants were more likely to be remanded in custody than any other outcome – the exception was in 2016, when they were more likely to be remanded on bail
  • from 2009 to 2017, defendants from the White and Asian ethnic groups were the least likely to be remanded in custody compared with other ethnic groups – 35.8% and 36.2% of defendants respectively had this remand status in 2017

Remands in custody by ethnicity and gender

Percentage of defendants remanded in custody at Crown Court by ethnicity and gender over time

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Ethnicity and sex % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number
Asian Female 24.5 94 22.0 98 22.2 104 19.2 79 18.2 62 20.7 68 20.3 74 23.2 72 22.1 60
Black Female 37.7 422 32.9 410 28.6 357 25.6 232 27.1 207 30.6 205 24.2 180 23.0 151 22.7 123
Mixed Female 19.4 43 21.7 86 28.4 112 22.2 80 23.5 64 24.2 64 21.6 63 24.9 58 27.2 56
Other inc Chinese Female 45.7 84 42.1 107 35.6 80 32.0 66 31.0 52 27.3 51 26.0 51 26.1 31 34.6 37
White Female 18.4 1,404 18.2 1,692 20.3 1,873 19.8 1,545 20.0 1,381 23.6 1,673 21.0 1,514 22.1 1,357 24.7 1,309
Asian Male 37.3 2,209 35.2 2,731 35.5 2,783 35.6 2,447 35.6 2,321 37.8 2,386 37.7 2,404 37.0 2,179 36.9 1,994
Black Male 49.2 4,288 47.0 4,963 47.7 5,187 47.2 4,511 47.6 4,170 48.4 4,183 47.7 4,010 44.4 3,725 44.0 3,463
Mixed Male 46.0 958 42.7 1,183 43.8 1,355 44.0 1,224 45.0 1,193 47.0 1,195 45.3 1,136 42.9 976 45.2 881
Other inc Chinese Male 52.8 827 51.2 985 46.9 857 46.2 747 48.6 718 46.6 627 46.2 643 40.5 501 41.0 428
White Male 33.5 19,702 34.1 24,941 35.8 26,401 34.8 22,258 36.4 22,079 38.4 23,438 38.4 23,109 36.3 19,537 37.0 17,471

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Summary

This data shows that:

  • in every year since 2009, male defendants were more likely than female defendants to be remanded in custody in every ethnic group
  • in 2017, male defendants from Mixed ethnic groups were more likely to be remanded in custody than male defendants from all other ethnic groups (at 45.2%)
  • female defendants from the Other (including Chinese) ethnic group were more likely to remanded in custody than female defendants from all other ethnic groups (at 34.6%)

Remands in custody by ethnicity and age group

Percentage of defendants remanded in custody at Crown Court by ethnicity and age group over time

2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009
Ethnicity and age group % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number
Asian Adults 36.6 1,791 36.8 1,984 36.9 2,160 37.8 2,134 35.0 2,045 34.8 2,096 34.6 2,349 34.1 2,308 36.9 1,928
Black Adults 42.3 2,861 42.7 3,164 45.3 3,394 46.9 3,582 45.3 3,472 44.4 3,617 44.2 4,170 44.9 4,177 47.4 3,720
Mixed Adults 43.9 736 42.0 833 43.5 966 44.8 967 42.8 940 41.1 944 42.8 1,054 38.6 859 42.3 676
Other inc Chinese Adults 39.3 395 37.9 455 43.9 608 43.6 597 46.3 690 43.3 676 44.7 781 50.7 970 52.9 816
White Adults 36.3 17,136 35.3 19,020 36.9 22,114 37.2 22,303 34.7 20,485 33.1 20,247 34.0 23,462 32.3 21,917 31.8 17,198
Asian Young adults 32.9 229 31.2 219 35.9 275 34.6 286 35.0 293 34.2 358 33.9 431 35.3 426 34.7 303
Black Young adults 42.8 611 42.6 611 47.8 677 48.1 658 50.2 720 47.6 859 51.2 1,077 46.1 907 49.1 751
Mixed Young adults 42.3 174 37.3 168 41.5 195 45.0 234 43.8 247 43.4 294 39.3 319 43.8 326 45.5 244
Other inc Chinese Young adults 46.8 59 49.3 67 41.1 67 46.0 64 53.4 71 55.0 111 50.6 128 45.6 99 42.9 69
White Young adults 30.8 1,446 31.4 1,699 33.8 2,231 34.7 2,483 35.5 2,587 33.8 3,114 34.2 4,184 31.9 4,078 31.0 3,228
Asian Juveniles 43.0 34 42.9 48 34.1 43 21.4 34 25.6 45 32.6 72 41.6 107 40.8 95 34.3 72
Black Juveniles 50.9 114 48.6 101 47.8 119 47.3 148 44.9 185 51.0 267 51.4 297 55.0 289 52.8 239
Mixed Juveniles 41.5 27 42.9 33 34.5 38 43.6 58 43.8 70 39.5 66 44.3 94 42.2 84 47.6 81
Other inc Chinese Juveniles 55.0 11 47.6 10 48.7 19 68.0 17 37.5 9 42.6 26 54.9 28 52.3 23 56.5 26
White Juveniles 31.3 198 25.8 175 30.6 278 29.9 325 33.5 388 31.3 442 35.8 628 35.7 638 37.1 680

Download table data (CSV) Source data (CSV)

Summary

This data shows that:

  • between 2014 and 2017, the percentage of Asian juvenile defendants remanded in custody doubled, from 21.4% in 2014 to 43.0% in 2017
  • in 2017, Black juvenile defendants, and those from Other (including Chinese) backgrounds, were more likely to be remanded in custody than remanded on bail, unlike defendants from the same age groups in most other ethnic groups

Methodology

Methodology

The data counts individual people (defendants) rather than cases. Multiple defendants are counted for one case where applicable. Each defendant is only counted once, even if multiple offences are committed. When a defendant has been found guilty of two or more offences, the data includes the offence for which the heaviest penalty is imposed.

Rounding

Percentages are rounded to 1 decimal place.

Related publications

Race and the criminal justice system

Quality and methodology information

Data sources

Source

Type of data

Administrative data

Type of statistic

National Statistics

Publisher

Ministry of Justice

Publication frequency

Quarterly

Purpose of data source

The data is used by the government to develop, monitor and evaluate criminal justice policy. It reports on activity in the criminal justice system for England and Wales, giving information for the latest year and longer-term trends.

Download the data

Remand status at Crown Court - Spreadsheet (csv) 72 KB

This file contains the following variables: Measure, Year, Sex, Age group, ethnicity, remand status, count, denominator, value

Remand status by Police Force Area - Spreadsheet (csv) 625 KB

This file contains the following variables: Measure, Year, Sex, Age Group, Ethnicity, Remand Status, Police Force Area, Count, Denominator, Value