The calculation of this measure has been carried out using the English Indices of Deprivation 2015 and the Office of National Statistics’ Census 2011.
The Indices of Deprivation 2015 ranks each of the 32,844 small areas in England known as Lower-layer Super Output Areas (LSOAs). The areas are ranked from the most deprived (ranked 1) to the least deprived (ranked 32,844).
Each LSOA contains about 1,500 people, and the 2011 Census gives the number of people from each ethnic group that live in each LSOA of England.
The Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) 2015 combines information from 7 indices, or ‘domains’, to produce an overall relative measure of deprivation. These domains are combined with the following weights, reflecting their influence on the overall IMD:
- income deprivation (22.5%)
- employment deprivation (22.5%)
- education, skills and training deprivation (13.5%)
- health deprivation and disability (13.5%)
- crime (9.3%)
- barriers to housing and services (9.3%)
- living environment deprivation (9.3%)
Each of these domains is based on a set of indicators; 37 different indicators are used in the domains listed above. In practice, most indicators in the Indices of Deprivation 2015 relate to the tax year 2012/13.
The Income Deprivation Domain and the Employment Deprivation Domain are the two domains which most heavily influence the overall IMD.
The Income Deprivation Domain measures the percentage of the population in each LSOA experiencing deprivation relating to low income. This includes people who are out of work, and people who are in work but are on low earnings (and who satisfy the respective means tests).
The Employment Deprivation Domain measures the percentage of the working age population in an LSOA who are involuntarily excluded from the labour market. This includes people who would like to work, but can’t because of unemployment, sickness or disability, or caring responsibilities.
The Education, Skills and Training Deprivation Domain measures the lack of attainment and skills in the local population and covers children and young people as well as adults.
The Health Deprivation and Disability Domain measures the risk of premature death and the impairment of quality of life through poor physical or mental health.
The Crime Domain measures the risk of personal and material victimisation at local level.
The Barriers to Housing and Services Domain measures the physical and financial accessibility of housing and local services. (This includes barriers related to the physical proximity of local services, or to access to housing such as affordability and homelessness.)
The Living Environment Deprivation Domain measures the quality of the local environment both ‘indoors’, ie the quality of housing, and ‘outdoors’.
The details of the indicators used to compile the English Indices of Deprivaton 2015, and more information on how the Index of Multiple Deprivation is calculated, can be found in the Technical Report (PDF).
The data downloads provide information on the percentage of people in each ethnic group who lived in the most deprived 10% of LSOAs according to the Index of Multiple Deprivation and each of the 7 individual domains of deprivation. Data is also provided in the downloads on the percentages of people in each ethnic group who live in less deprived areas.
Deprivation ‘deciles’ have been calculated by ranking the 32,844 LSOAs in England from the most deprived to the least deprived, and dividing them into 10 equal groups. These range from the most deprived 10% of small areas nationally to the least deprived 10% of small areas nationally.
All percentages are rounded to one decimal place.Quality and methodology information